The Quark Gluon Plasma at RHIC outline What’s a plasma in addition to why do we expect one

The Quark Gluon Plasma at RHIC outline What’s a plasma in addition to why do we expect one www.phwiki.com

The Quark Gluon Plasma at RHIC outline What’s a plasma in addition to why do we expect one

Moretti, Michael, Founder and Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Quark Gluon Plasma at RHIC outline What’s a plasma in addition to why do we expect one from quarks in addition to gluons The tools to make in addition to study quark gluon plasma What do we see at RHIC collective flow opacity of the matter excitations of the matter J/y suppression to search as long as deconfinement Conclusions what we have found what HAVE we found what is a plasma 4th state of matter (after solid, liquid in addition to gas) a plasma is: ionized gas which is macroscopically neutral exhibits collective effects interactions among charges of multiple particles spreads charge out into characteristic (Debye) length, lD multiple particles inside this length they screen each other plasma size > lD “normal” plasmas are electromagnetic (e + ions) quark-gluon plasma interacts via strong interaction color as long as ces rather than EM exchanged particles: g instead of g

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Quarks, gluons, hadrons 6 quarks: 2 light (u,d), 1 sort of light (s) 2 heavy (c,b), 1very heavy (t) flavor & color quantum numbers Quarks are bound into hadrons Baryons (e.g. n, p) have 3 Mesons (e.g. p, K, f): 2 (q + anti-q) Colored quarks interact by exchange of gluons Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) Field theory of the strong interaction parallels Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) EM interactions: exchanged photons electrically uncharged gluons carry color charge QCD phase transition Color charge of gluons gluons interact among themselves theory is non-abelian curious properties at large distance: confinement of quarks in hadrons non-perturbative QCD – lattice gauge theory required conditions to study quark gluon plasma

to get there: collide BIG ions at v ~ c Create high(est!) energy density matter similar to that existing ~1 msec after the Big Bang can study only in the lab – relics from Big Bang inaccessible T ~ 200-400 MeV (~ 2-4 x 1012 K) e ~ 5-15 GeV/fm3 (~ 1030 J/cm2) R ~ 10 fm, tlife ~ 10 fm/c (~3 x 10-23 sec) Characterize the hot, dense medium does medium behave as a plasma coupling weak or strong What’s the density, temperature, radiation rate, collision frequency, conductivity, opacity, Debye screening length probes: passive (radiation) in addition to those created in the collision ideal gas or strongly coupled plasma Huge gluon density! estimate G = / using QCD coupling strength g =g2/d d ~1/(41/3T) ~ 3T g2 ~ 4-6 (value runs with T) G ~ g2 (41/3T) / 3T so plasma parameter G ~ 3 quark gluon plasma should be a strongly coupled plasma As in warm, dense plasma at lower (but still high) T how does it compare to interesting EM plasmas G > 1: strongly coupled, few particles inside Debye radius RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory Collide Au + Au ions as long as maximum volume s = 200 GeV/nucleon pair, p+p in addition to d+A to compare

4 complementary experiments Study simple complex systems: p+p, “p”+A, A+A collisions is QCD the right theory at RHIC Perturbative as long as high p transfer processes pp collisions: it works! Have a h in addition to le on initial NN interactions by scattering of q, g inside N p0 look at radiated & “probe” particles as a function of transverse momentum pT = p sin q q with respect to beam direction 90° is where the action is (max T, r) midway between the two beams! pT < 1.5 GeV/c “thermal” particles from the bulk of the plasma pT > 3 GeV/c fast particles – mostly part of jets of hadrons coming from hard scattered q or g produced very early, probe the plasma

search as long as collectivity (plasma feature) dN/df ~ 1 + 2 v2(pT) cos (2f) + “elliptic flow” momentum space v2 reproduced by hydrodynamics STAR PRL 86 (2001) 402 see large pressure buildup! anisotropy happens fast early equilibration central Elliptic flow scales as number of quarks

even charm quarks flow! measure De± + hadrons Mcharm = 1.3 GeV D’s flow to ~2 GeV/c then expect e from B decays (Mb~4 GeV shouldn’t flow) collective flows tell us: RHIC creates matter – not just collection of particles the matter catches even the heavy c quarks! How to actively probe the deep interior measure “hard scatterings” of q,g at large pT “transverse momenta” q p pT Direct Photon Spectra in Au+Au q + g q + g Should not interact with the color charges data in addition to theory agree calibrated probe pQCD works in the complex environment of two nuclei (Au+Au ) colliding at high energies

strongly interacting probe: a different story! suppression persists to 20 GeV/c! nuclear modification factor ratio of data on previous slide so we see: photons shine, pions don’t Direct photons are not inhibited by hot/dense medium Pions (all hadrons) are inhibited by hot/dense medium

look as long as the jet on the other side STAR PRL 90, 082302 (2003) Central Au + Au Peripheral Au + Au Are back-to-back jets there in d+Au Yes! QGP properties, so far Extract from models, constrain by data Equation of state Early degrees of freedom in addition to their s Deconfinement Thermalization mechanism Conductivity

Moretti, Michael Medical Insight Founder and Editor www.phwiki.com

How to get fast equilibration & large v2 parton cascade using free q,g scattering cross sections doesn’t work! need s x50 in medium What is going on The objects colliding inside the plasma are not baryons in addition to mesons The objects colliding also do not seem to be quarks in addition to gluons totally free of the influence of their neighbors Quarks in addition to gluons are interacting, but are not locally (color) neutral like the baryons & mesons. Neutrality scale likely larger, as expected as long as a plasma. strongly coupled gas of atoms M. Gehm, S. Granade, S. Hemmer, K, O’Hara, J. Thomas Science 298 2179 (2002) weakly coupled strongly coupled elliptic flow!

what about the heavier quarks e± in Au+Au vs p+p peripheral collisions central collisions c quark suppression is nearly as large as as long as pions! where does the lost energy go transferred to the plasma does the medium respond look at “away side” jet’s particles near thermal pT a sonic boom g radiates energy kick particles in the plasma accelerate them along the jet jury is still out

probing a heavy ion collision e, pressure builds up we focus on mid-rapidity (y=0), as it is the CM of colliding system 90° in the lab at collider The Scope of the Tools (!) STAR specialty: large acceptance measurement of hadrons PHENIX specialty: rare probes, leptons, in addition to photons Energy density of matter high energy density: e > 1011 J/m3 P > 1 Mbar I > 3 X 1015W/cm2 Fields > 500 Tesla

Moretti, Michael Founder and Editor

Moretti, Michael is from United States and they belong to Medical Insight and they are from  Aliso Viejo, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Moretti, Michael deal with the subjects like Medical

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