The Quark Structure of Nuclei Quarks in a Nucleus Anti-Quarks in a Nucleus Chiral Quark-Soliton model Use the Nuclear Arena to Study QCD

The Quark Structure of Nuclei Quarks in a Nucleus Anti-Quarks in a Nucleus Chiral Quark-Soliton model Use the Nuclear Arena to Study QCD www.phwiki.com

The Quark Structure of Nuclei Quarks in a Nucleus Anti-Quarks in a Nucleus Chiral Quark-Soliton model Use the Nuclear Arena to Study QCD

York, Renee, Operations Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Quarks in addition to Gluons in the Nuclear Medium – Opportunities at JLab@12 GeV in addition to an EIC Rolf Ent, ECT-Trento, June 06, 2008 Nuclear Medium Effects on the Quark in addition to Gluon Structure of Hadrons Main Workshop Topics Nuclear effects in polarized in addition to unpolarized deep inelastic scattering Nuclear generalized parton distributions Hard exclusive in addition to semi-inclusive processes Nuclear hadronization Color transparency Future facilities in addition to experiments The Quark Structure of Nuclei The QCD Lagrangian in addition to Nuclear “Medium Modifications” Leinweber, Signal et al. The QCD vacuum Long-distance gluonic fluctuations Does the quark structure of a nucleon get modified by the suppressed QCD vacuum fluctuations in a nucleus

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Quarks in a Nucleus Effect well measured,over large range of x in addition to A, but remains poorly understood 1) ln(A) or r dependent Observation that structure functions are altered in nuclei stunned much of the HEP community ~25 years ago 2) valence quark effect only A=3 EMC Effect at 12 GeV E772 Is the EMC effect a valence quark phenomenon or are sea quarks involved Anti-Quarks in a Nucleus Solution: Detect a final state hadron in addition to scattered electron Deep inelastic electron scattering probes only the sum of quarks in addition to anti-quarks requires assumptions on the role of sea quarks Can ‘tag’ the flavor of the struck quark by measuring the hadrons produced: ‘flavor tagging’ Tremendous opportunity as long as experimental improvements! g1(A) – “Polarized EMC Effect” New calculations indicate larger effect as long as polarized structure function than as long as unpolarized: scalar field modifies lower components of Dirac wave function Spin-dependent parton distribution functions as long as nuclei nearly unknown Can take advantage of modern technology as long as polarized solid targets to per as long as m systematic studies – Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

Miller, Smith Valence only calculations consistent with Cloet, Bentz, Thomas calculations Same model shows small effects due to sea quarks as long as the unpolarized case (consistent with data) Large enhancement as long as x>0.3 due to sea quarks Sea is not much modified Chiral Quark-Soliton model (quarks in nucleons (soliton) exchange infinite pairs of pions, vector mesons with nuclear medium) New calculations indicate larger effect as long as polarized structure function than as long as unpolarized: scalar field modifies lower components of Dirac wave function Spin-dependent parton distribution functions as long as nuclei nearly unknown Can take advantage of modern technology as long as polarized solid targets to per as long as m systematic studies – Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Curve follows calculation by W. Bentz, I. Cloet, A. W. Thomas. g1(A) – “Polarized EMC Effect” Extend measurements on nuclei to x > 1: Superfast quarks Correlated nucleon pair Six-quark bag (4.5% of wave function) Fe(e,e’) 5 PAC days Mean field

Does the quark structure of a nucleon get modified by the suppressed QCD vacuum fluctuations in a nucleus Measure the EMC effect on the mirror nuclei 3H in addition to 3He Is the EMC effect a valence quark only effect Is the spin-dependent EMC effect larger Can we reconstruct the EMC effect on 3He in addition to 4He from all measured reaction channels Is there any signature as long as 6-quark clusters Can we map the effect vs. transverse momentum/size Reminder: EMC effect is effect that quark momenta in nuclei are altered Now: use the nuclear arena to look as long as QCD Use the Nuclear Arena to Study QCD Total Hadron-Nucleus Cross Sections Hadron– Nucleus total cross section Fit to a K p p p – Hadron momentum 60, 200, 250 GeV/c a < 1 interpreted as due to the strongly interacting nature of the probe A. S. Carroll et al. Phys. Lett 80B 319 (1979) a = 0.72 – 0.78, as long as p, p, k Traditional nuclear physics expectation: transparency nearly energy independent. T 1.0 Energy (GeV) Ingredients s h-N cross-section Glauber multiple scattering approximation (or better transport calculation!) Correlations & Final-State Interaction effects hN Physics of Nuclei: Color Transparency From fundamental considerations (quantum mechanics, relativity, nature of the strong interaction) it is predicted (Brodsky, Mueller) that fast protons scattered from the nucleus will have decreased final state interactions Quantum ChromoDynamics: A(e,e’h), h = hadron Search as long as Color Transparency in Quasi-free A(e,e’p) Scattering Constant value line fits give good description: c2/df = 1 Conventional Nuclear Physics Calculation by P in addition to harip in addition to e et al. (dashed) also gives good description Fit to s = soAa a = constant = 0.75 Close to proton-nucleus total cross section data No sign of CT yet a Physics of Nuclei: Color Transparency AGS A(p,2p) Glauber calculation Results inconsistent with CT only. But can be explained by including additional mechanisms such as nuclear filtering or charm resonance states. The A(e,e’p) measurements will extend up to ~10 GeV/c proton momentum, beyond the peak of the rise in transparency found in the BNL A(p,2p) experiments. Physics of Nuclei: Color Transparency Total pion-nucleus cross section slowly disappears, or pion escape probability increases Color Transparency Unique possibility to map out at 12 GeV (up to Q2 = 10) Total pion-nucleus cross section slowly disappears, or pion escape probability increases Color Transparency A(e,e’p+) Physics of Nuclei: Color Transparency A(e,e’r+) at 12 GeV (at fixed coherence length) 12 GeV Using the nuclear arena How long can an energetic quark remain deconfined How long does it take a confined quark to as long as m a hadron Formation time tfh Production time tp Quark is deconfined Hadron is as long as med Hadron attenuation CLAS Time required to produce colorless “pre-hadron”, signaled by medium-stimulated energy loss via gluon emission Time required to produce fully-developed hadron, signaled by CT in addition to /or usual hadronic interactions Using the nuclear arena dE/dx ~ L DE ~ L (QED) ~ L2 (QCD) How long can an energetic quark remain deconfined How long does it take a confined quark to as long as m a hadron Or How do energetic quarks trans as long as m into hadrons How quickly does it happen What are the mechanisms How long can an energetic quark remain deconfined How long does it take a confined quark to as long as m a hadron Or How do energetic quarks trans as long as m into hadrons How quickly does it happen What are the mechanisms Deep Inelastic Scattering Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions Initial quark energy is known Properties of medium are known Using the nuclear arena Relevance to RHIC in addition to LHC DpT2 vs. n as long as Carbon, Iron, in addition to Lead C Pb Fe DpT2 (GeV2) n (GeV) ~ 100 MeV/fm (perturbative as long as mula) ~dE/dx Preliminary CLAS Hall B

Production length from JLab/CLAS 5 GeV data (Kopeliovich, Nemchik, Schmidt, hep-ph/0608044) What we have learned Quark energy loss can be estimated Data appear to support the novel DE ~L2 ‘LPM’ behavior ~100 MeV/fm as long as Pb at few GeV, perturbative as long as mula Deconfined quark lifetime can be estimated, ~ 5 fm @ few GeV Outst in addition to ing questions Higher energy data to confirm “plateau” as long as heavy (large-A) nuclei Much more theoretical work needed to provide a quantitative basis as long as jet quenching at RHIC/LHC Using the nuclear arena DpT2 reaches a “plateau” as long as sufficiently large quark energy, as long as each nucleus (L is fixed). DpT2 n Projected Data DOE Project Critical Decisions CD-0 Approve Mission Need CD-1 Approve Alternative Selection in addition to Cost Range Permission to develop a Conceptual Design Report Defines a range of cost, scope, in addition to schedule options CD-2 Approve Per as long as mance Baseline Fixes “baseline” as long as scope, cost, in addition to schedule Now develop design to 100% Begin monthly Earned Value progress reporting to DOE Permission as long as DOE-NP to request construction funds CD-3 Approve Start of Construction DOE CD3 (IPR/Lehman) review scheduled as long as July 22-24 DOE Office of Science CD-3 Approval meeting in late Sept 2008 CD-4 Approve Start of Operations or Project Close-out

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DOE CRITICAL DECISION SCHEDULE (A) = Actual Approval Date 2004-2005 Conceptual Design (CDR) – finished 2004-2008 Research in addition to Development (R&D) – ongoing 2006 Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) – finished 2006-2009 Project Engineering & Design (PED) – ongoing 2009-2014 Construction – starts in ~1/2 year! Parasitic machine shutdown May 2011 through Oct. 2011 Accelerator shutdown start mid-May 2012 Accelerator commissioning start mid-May 2013 2013-2015 Pre-Ops (beam commissioning) Hall A commissioning start October 2013 Hall D commissioning start April 2014 Halls B in addition to C commissioning start October 2014 12 GeV Upgrade: Phases in addition to Schedule (based on funding guidance provided by DOE-NP in June-2007) The Gluon Structure of Nuclei

Gluons dominate QCD QCD is the fundamental theory that describes structure in addition to interactions in nuclear matter. Without gluons there are no protons, no neutrons, in addition to no atomic nuclei Facts: The essential features of QCD (e.g. asymptotic freedom, chiral symmetry breaking, in addition to color confinement) are all driven by the gluons! Unique aspect of QCD is the self interaction of the gluons 98% of mass of the visible universe arises from glue Half of the nucleon momentum is carried by gluons However, gluons are dark: they do not interact directly with light high-energy collider! The Low Energy View of Nuclear Matter nucleus = protons + neutrons nucleon quark model quark model QCD The High Energy View of Nuclear Matter The visible Universe is generated by quarks, but dominated by the dark glue! Remove factor 20 Exposing the high-energy (dark) side of the nuclei EIC science has evolved from new insights in addition to technical accomplishments over the last decade ~1996 development of GPDs ~1999 high-power energy recovery linac technology ~2000 universal properties of strongly interacting glue ~2000 emergence of transverse-spin phenomenon ~2001 world’s first high energy polarized proton collider ~2003 RHIC sees tantalizing hints of saturation ~2006 electron cooling as long as high-energy beams

GPDs in addition to Transverse Gluon Imaging A Major new direction in Nuclear Science aimed at the 3-D mapping of the quark structure of the nucleon. Simplest process: Deep-Virtual Compton Scattering Simultaneous measurements over large range in x, Q2, t at EIC! At small x (large W): s ~ G(x,Q2)2

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