The Reality of Poverty The Consequences of Poverty The Solutions to Poverty

The Reality of Poverty The Consequences of Poverty The Solutions to Poverty

The Reality of Poverty The Consequences of Poverty The Solutions to Poverty

Smith, Camden, General Manager;Program Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal PUBLIC LECTURE David Gordon Professor in Social Justice Inaugural Lecture Eradicating Poverty in the 21st Century: When will Social Justice be done Monday, 18th October, 2004 PowerPoint is Evil

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Five Themes The Rhetoric The Reality The Consequences of Poverty The Causes of Poverty The Solutions to Poverty Child Poverty in the UK The UK Government is committed to tackling the problem of child poverty. In March 1999, the Prime Minister Tony Blair set out a commitment to end child poverty as long as ever: “And I will set out our historic aim that ours is the first generation to end child poverty as long as ever, in addition to it will take a generation. It is a 20-year mission but I believe it can be done. In 2000, the whole world came together to make a solemn promise as long as 2015 – the Millennium Development Goals: the promise of primary education as long as every child; the promise of an end to avoidable infant in addition to maternal deaths; the promise of a halving of poverty. But on current rates of progress, in Sub-Saharan Africa: The promise of primary education as long as all will be delivered not in 2015 but 2130 (115 years too late); The promise as long as the halving of poverty not by 2015 but 2150 (135 years too late); And the promise of cutting infant deaths not by 2015 but by 2165 (150 years too late). And I say: 150 years is too long as long as a people to wait as long as justice; 150 years is too long to wait when infants are dying in Africa when there are medicines in the rest of the world to heal them; 150 years is too long to wait as long as promises to be redeemed in addition to a bond of trust to be honoured; 150 years is too long to wait when all the world lacks is the will to act. Prosperity in addition to justice as long as all Gordon Brown, October 2004

More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive in addition to stagnant. Their poverty is a h in addition to icap in addition to a threat both to them in addition to to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge in addition to the skill to relieve the suffering of these people. Harry S. Truman Inaugural Address Thursday, January 20, 1949 Man holds in his mortal h in addition to s the power to abolish all as long as ms of human poverty Every blow we inflict against poverty will be a blow against its dark allies of oppression in addition to war. In the quiet of American conscience, we know that deep, persistent poverty is unworthy of our nation’s promise. And whatever our views of its cause, we can agree that children at risk are not at fault. John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address Friday, January 20, 1961 Ronald Reagan Second Inaugural Address Monday, January 21, 1985 George W. Bush Inaugural Address January 20, 2001 within a decade no child will go to bed hungry, [ ] no family will fear as long as its next days bread in addition to [ ] no human being’s future in addition to well being will be stunted by malnutrition. No More Hungry Children Henry Kissinger, First World Food Conference, Rome 1974

Do not weep; do not wax indignant. Underst in addition to . Baruch Spinoza (1632 – 1677) The Reality of Poverty Age at death by age group, 1990-1995 Source: The State of the World Population 1998

Cause of death as long as children under five Bars show estimated confidence interval Only the good die young – what kills children “The world’s biggest killer in addition to the greatest cause of ill health in addition to suffering across the globe is listed almost at the end of the International Classification of Diseases. It is given code Z59.5 – extreme poverty. World Health Organisation (1995) Seven out of 10 childhood deaths in developing countries can be attributed to just five main causes – or a combination of them: pneumonia, diarrhoea, measles, malaria in addition to malnutrition. Around the world, three out of four children seen by health services are suffering from at least one of these conditions. World Health Organisation (1996; 1998). Champagne glass of income distribution The stem of the glass is getting thinner. In 1960 the income of the wealthiest fifth was 30 times greater than that of the poorest fifth; now it’s more than 80 times greater.

Wealth in the UK What is Poverty Jules Feiffer’s America Low Income in Britain 1961-2003

Change in Real Median Weekly Incomes 1979 to 1996 by Decile Group at April 1998 Prices (After Housing Costs) (Source: Calculated from HBAI, 1998) Number in addition to percentage of the population living on incomes below 60% of the median in 15 EU countries, 1999. Source: Dennis in addition to Guio (2003) analysis of the ECHP European Union definitions of poverty in addition to social exclusion The European Union (EU) definition of poverty is one of the most longst in addition to ing in addition to widely known. First adopted by the Council of Europe in 1975, it defines those as in poverty as: “individuals or families whose resources are so small as to exclude them from a minimum acceptable way of life in the Member State in which they live.” (EEC, 1981). The concept of ‘resources’ was further defined as: “goods, cash income, plus services from other private resources”. On the 19 December 1984, the European Commission extended the definition as: “the poor shall be taken to mean persons, families in addition to groups of persons whose resources (material, cultural in addition to social) are so limited as to exclude them from the minimum acceptable way of life in the Member State in which they live.” (EEC, 1985). These are clearly relative definitions of poverty in that they all refer to poverty not as some ‘absolute basket of goods’ but in terms of the minimum acceptable st in addition to ard of living applicable to a certain Member State in addition to within a person’s own society.

Scientific definition of poverty The Growth of Poverty in Britain Between 1983 in addition to 1990, the number of households living in poverty increased by almost 50%. In 1983, 14% of households were living in poverty in addition to , by 1990, 21% of households were living in poverty. Poverty continued to increase during the 1990s in addition to , by 1999, the number of households living in poverty had again increased to over 24%. This rapid increase in poverty occurred during a period when the majority of British households were becoming more in addition to more wealthy. The Growth of Poverty in Britain Poverty increased at an average rate of 1% of households per year during the 1980s in addition to at a slower average rate of 0.3% of households per year during the 1990s. This is the equivalent of all the households in a city the size of Liverpool or Sheffield becoming poor each year during the 1980s. During the 1990s, poverty grew at a rate equivalent to the all the households in a city the size of Brighton or Milton Keynes becoming poor each year.

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The Consequences of Poverty Roughly 9.5 million people in Britain cannot af as long as d adequate housing. That is, they are unable to af as long as d to keep their homes adequately heated, free from damp or in a decent state of decoration. About 8 million people cannot af as long as d one or more essential household goods (eg. refrigerator, telephone, carpets), or to repair electrical goods or furniture. Almost 7.5 million people cannot af as long as d to participate in common social activities such as visiting friends or family, attending weddings or funerals, or celebrating special occasions. One third of British children go without social or material necessities (eg. three meals a day, toys, out-of-school activities, adequate clothing). Nearly one fifth (18%) go without two or more necessities as defined by the majority of the British population. About 6.5 million adults go without essential clothing such as a warm waterproof coat because of a lack of money. Around 4 million people are not properly fed by today’s st in addition to ards. For example, they cannot af as long as d fresh fruit in addition to vegetables, or two meals a day. Over 10.5 million people are financial insecure, they cannot to af as long as d to save, insure their possessions, or spend even small amounts of money on themselves. The Consequences of Poverty in Britain (PSE 1999) Absolute in addition to Overall Poverty After the World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen in 1995, 117 countries adopted a declaration in addition to programme of action which included commitments to eradicate “absolute” in addition to reduce “overall” poverty. Absolute poverty was defined as “a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education in addition to in as long as mation. It depends not only on income but also on access to services.” Overall poverty takes various as long as ms, including “lack of income in addition to productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods; hunger in addition to malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education in addition to other basic services; increased morbidity in addition to mortality from illness; homelessness in addition to inadequate housing; unsafe environments in addition to social discrimination in addition to exclusion. It is also characterised by lack of participation in decision-making in addition to in civil, social in addition to cultural life. It occurs in all countries: as mass poverty in many developing countries, pockets of poverty amid wealth in developed countries, loss of livelihoods as a result of economic recession, sudden poverty as a result of disaster or conflict, the poverty of low-wage workers, in addition to the utter destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social institutions in addition to safety nets. (UN, 1995)

Deprivation can be conceptualised as a continuum which ranges from no deprivation through mild, moderate in addition to severe deprivation to extreme deprivation. Continuum of deprivation In order to measure absolute poverty amongst children, it is necessary to define the threshold measures of severe deprivation of basic human need as long as : food safe drinking water sanitation facilities health shelter education in as long as mation access to service Over one billion children – half the children in the world- suffer from severe deprivation of basic human need in addition to 30% (650 million) suffer from absolute poverty (two or more severe deprivations). Child Poverty in the World ‘severe deprivation of basic human need’ are those circumstances that are highly likely to have serious adverse consequences as long as the health, well-being in addition to development of children. Severe deprivations are causally related to ‘poor’ developmental outcomes both long in addition to short term. Severe Deprivation of Basic Human Need Almost a third of the world’s children have to live in dwellings with more than five people per room or which have a mud floor. Over half a billion children (27%) have no toilet facilities whatsoever. Almost 400 million children (19%) are using unsafe (open) water sources or have more than a 15-minute walk to water. About one in five children (aged between 3 in addition to 18) lack access to radio, television, telephone, computers or newspapers at home. Fifteen percent of children under five years in the world are severely malnourished, almost half of whom are in South Asia. 300 million children (14%) have not been immunised against any diseases or have had a recent illness causing diarrhoea in addition to have not received any medical advice or treatment. 144 million children aged between 7 in addition to 18 (11%) are severely educationally deprived – they have never been to school.

Percentage of households receiving social benefits in 1996 in EU countries Example: 39% of Greeks live in households where at least one member draws a pension. For other social benefits, the figure is 19%. For all social benefits together, the figure is 50% (not 58%, ie 39% + 19%, since some households receive more than one type of social benefit). Progressive tax in addition to income policies, with income redistribution from ‘rich’ to ‘poor’ in addition to from men to women. As well as redistribution of income across an individual’s life span by taxing in addition to reducing income levels in middle age balanced with then paying social benefits to increase income during childhood in addition to old age Active labour market interventions to create high quality jobs. En as long as cement of minimum st in addition to ards on wages in addition to working conditions of the low paid within an international framework. Universal social insurance in addition to public social services – the ‘basic needs services’ – by introducing internationally agreed minimum levels of benefit – such as in International Labour Convention No. 102 concerning Minimum St in addition to ards of Social Security Greater accountability in addition to increased social in addition to democratic control over trans-national corporations in addition to international agencies, to remedy the ‘democratic deficit’. Effective in addition to Efficient Anti-Poverty Measures “This would mean restoring to the centre of the tax system two basic principals: the first, that those who cannot af as long as d to pay tax should not have to pay it; in addition to the second, that taxation should rise progressively with income. Programmes that merely redistribute poverty from families to single persons, from the old to the young, from the sick to the healthy, are not a solution. What is needed, is a programme of re as long as m that ends the current situation where the top 10% own 80% of our wealth in addition to 30% of income, even after tax. As Tawney remarked, ‘What some people call the problem of poverty, others call the problem of riches’.” (Gordon Brown in addition to Robin Cook, 1983) Poverty in the UK: The Solution

Smith, Camden General Manager;Program Director

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