# The Solar System The Sky from Here The Celestial Sphere Celestial Equator in addition to Pole Rising in addition to Setting

## The Solar System The Sky from Here The Celestial Sphere Celestial Equator in addition to Pole Rising in addition to Setting

Kelley, Tom, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Solar System Scaling Things Down Lets make everything one-billionth (10-9) as big as it really is (9 orders of magnitude smaller) The Earth: Diameter = 13000 km = 1.3×107 m 1.3x107x10-9 ~ 10-2 = 1.3 cm (a marble) The Sun: Diameter = 1,400,000 km = 1.4×109 m (about 100 times the Earths) so it must be 1.4 m (about a foot less than my height) Earth-Sun Distance = 1.5×1011 m (1 Astronomical Unit) 1.5x1011x10-9 = 1.5×102 m = 150 m or about one- in addition to -a-half football fields Scaling Things Down Jupiter Distance = 5 AU, Saturn Distance = 10 AU (downtown Berkeley) Pluto Distance = 35 AU (6 km: Oakl in addition to ) 1 Light Year: 3×108 m/s x 3×107 s/yr ~ 1016 m or 1013 km scaled down, that would be 1013-9 km or 10,000 km (about the distance to Europe) The nearest star is 4 light years away . The center of our Galaxy is 25000 ly away!! (scaled down, wed be back out beyond the Sun )

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The Sky from Here From the ground, the sky looks like a big dome above us. Both the zenith in addition to horizon are locally defined. The Celestial Sphere It is impossible to tell how far away anything is, or whether there is any depth to the celestial sphere. Celestial Equator in addition to Pole We project the Earth into the sky, in addition to its rotation appears reflected there. The diurnal (daily) motion of the sky is just due to the spinning Earth.

Rising in addition to Setting Some stars never set from a given latitude (circumpolar). The size of the circumpolar region grows as you approach the poles. You can never see stars in the opposite circumpolar hemisphere. Stars may rise in the East, SouthEast, or NorthEast (so might the Sun). Path of the Sun The altitude of the pole depends on your latitude. The Sun may never pass overhead. The altitude of the Sun depends on the season. Celestial Coordinates To map a given point in the sky, you can specify how high it is, in addition to in what direction (altitude in addition to azimuth). Or you can project latitude (declination) in addition to longitude into the sky, but since the Earth rotates, we must use right ascension which is fixed on the stars.

The Ecliptic Plane The projection of the Suns path on the celestial sphere, or equivalently the projection of the plane of the Earths orbit, is called the ecliptic. It has a 23 degree tilt to the equator. Chart of the Sky Note how the Sun appears to go North in addition to South as the year progresses. The zero point of Right Ascencsion occurs at the Spring crossing of the Equator (vernal equinox). The solstices occur at the maximum N/S excursions. The Seasonal Stars Constellations along the ecliptic are called the Zodiac. The visible ones change through the year because the Earth orbits the Sun. The constellations themselves are arbitrary groupings of stars in the sky. The stars up at night in the summer are up during the daytime in the winter.

Morning in addition to Evening Stars We see Mercury in addition to Venus follow the Sun around in the sky. They may go down after, or come up be as long as e it. If they go down after, we see them in the evening. This is because they have orbits inward of ours. That means they can only be seen to a certain maximum angle away from the Sun. Retrograde Motion The outer planets appear to make strange reversals in their motion against the stars. This is due to the fact that the Earth moves around the Sun faster than they do, causing us to overtake them periodically, during which time they appear to move backwards in the sky. This caused a lot of headaches as long as those trying to explain the apparent motion of the planets. The S shape is due to the fact that the orbital planes arent quite aligned. Astro Quiz What is the nightly path of the North Star as seen from the Earths equator It rises far north of east, in addition to sets far north of west. It makes a circle around the sky, very low to the horizon. It sits on the horizon in one place all night (so would always be hard to see).

## Kelley, Tom Managing Editor

Kelley, Tom is from United States and they belong to Driving Force Magazine and they are from  Anniston, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Kelley, Tom deal with the subjects like Aftermarket Industry; Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

## Journal Ratings by Ecole Nationale des Sciences Gographiques

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Ecole Nationale des Sciences Gographiques and short form of this particular Institution is FR and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.