The stereochemical relationships, shown in Fischer projection, among the D-aldos

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The stereochemical relationships, shown in Fischer projection, among the D-aldos

Chavez, Gary, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The stereochemical relationships, shown in Fischer projection, among the D-aldoses with three to six carbon atoms. The stereochemical relationships among the D-ketoses with three to six carbon atoms. The reactions of alcohols with (a) aldehydes to as long as m hemiacetals in addition to (b) ketones to as long as m hemiketals. These reactions are freely reversible in aqueous solution.

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Cyclization of hexoses: anomerization The anomeric monosaccharides a-D-glucopyranose in addition to b-D-glucopyranose, drawn as both Haworth projections in addition to ball- in addition to -stick models Con as long as mations of the cyclohexane ring (a) in the boat con as long as mation in addition to (b) in the chair con as long as mation

The two idealized chair con as long as mations of b-D-glucopyranose 4C1 1C4 more stable less stable D-Glucono-d-lactone in addition to D-glucurono-d-lactone are, respectively, the lactones of D-gluconic acid in addition to D-glucuronic acid. aldonic acid uronic acid Oxidized Monosaccharide Derivatives The reversible oxidation of L-ascorbic acid to L-dehydroascorbic acid lactones

N-Acetyl-neuraminic (sialic) acid in its linear in addition to pyranose as long as ms an a-ketoacid The acid-catalyzed condensation of a-D-glucopyranose with methanol to as long as m an anomeric pair of methyl D-glucopyranosides (Fischer glycosidation); furanosides also as long as m under these conditions Common disaccharide: sucrose

Common disaccharide: b-lactose Common disaccharide: b-maltose Common disaccharide: a-isomaltose

Common disaccharide: b-cellobiose Electron micrograph of the cellulose fibers in the cell wall of the alga, Chaetomorpha melagonium Primary structure of cellulose: b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,4)-b-D-glucopyranosyl-

Proposed structural model of cellulose Extensive H-bonding network (intra- in addition to interchain: responsible as long as the rigidity of cellulose fibers Primary structure of chitin: b-D-GlcNAc-(1,4)-b-D-GlcNAc- A structural motif similar to that of cellulose: thus, similar physical properties (structure-function correlations) O O a-Amylose: D-glucose residues are linked by a-(1 ® 4) bonds (red) a-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,4)-a-D-glucopyranosyl-

a-Amylose: this regularly repeating polymer as long as ms a left-h in addition to ed helix. Amylopectin: Primary structure near one of it’s a-(1® 6) branch points (red) Amylopectin showing its bushlike (compact, globular) structure (glucose residues at branch points indicated in red) Glycogen is amylopectin-like but with greater branching

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Photomicrograph showing the glycogen granules (pink) in the cytoplasm of a liver cell N-Linked oligosaccharides: all N-glycosidic protein attachments occur through a N-acetyl-b-D-glucosamine–Asn bond to Asn–X–Ser/Thr N-Linked oligosaccharides: N-linked oligosaccharides usually have the branched (mannose)3(NAG)2 core shown

N-Linked oligosaccharides: some examples of N-linked oligosaccharides The microheterogeneous N-linked oligosaccharide of RNase B has the (mannose)5(NAG)2 core shown Some common O-glycosidic attachments of oligosaccharides to glycoproteins (red): blood group antigens (glycophorin)

Properties of some proteoglycans

Chavez, Gary Host

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