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The USA Patriot Act Aaron Nishina Jon Gerard Ricky Sood The USA Patriot Act
Bryn Athyn College of the New Church, US has reference to this Academic Journal, The USA Patriot Act Aaron Nishina Jon Gerard Ricky Sood The USA Patriot Act Formal definition: the Uniting in addition to Strengthening America by Providing Tools Required To Intercept in addition to Obstruct Terrorism (USAPA) History Behind The Computing Policies of the USAPA Attorney General John Ashcroft His views on cyber-crime in the United States pre-9/11 May 22, 2001
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The Speech Terrorism In the U.S. Domestic vs. International terrorism The need so that fight terrorism Relation so that computing The government?s solution What is the Patriot Act? Anti-terrorism legislative document Addresses cyber crimes issues Fundamental privacy vs. security issues Creates new laws / Appends Old Laws
Some of the Major Provisions Court subpoena no longer needed in consideration of ISP?s so that give information Computer crimes are now ?terrorist? offenses ISP?s have so that give up more user information Court orders no longer needed in consideration of monitoring suspects in computer crimes cases Appends the Computer Fraud in addition to Abuse Act Major changes at Libraries in the U.S. Development of electronic crime task force within the U.S. Secret Service Implementation of the Carnivore Tracking Device Who Are the Stakeholders? Computer users in the public Internet Service Providers Libraries Law Enforcement Terrorists Advocates vs. Opponents
Chapter 14 Financial Statement Analysis Objectives of the Chapter The Need in consideration of Comparative Financial Statement (F/S) Analysis Investors in addition to F/S Analysis Ratio Analysis Comparative Ratio Analysis Comparative Ratio Analysis (contd.) Other Tools in consideration of Comparative Financial Statement Analysis Other Tools in consideration of Comparative Financial Statement Analysis (contd.) Comparative F/S Analysis Comparative Analysis ?A Note Horizontal , Vertical in addition to Ratio Analyses Horizontal Analysis ?intra-company Comparison Horizontal Analysis (contd.) Horizontal Analysis (contd.) Example Vertical Analysis Vertical Analysis (Contd.) Vertical Analysis (Contd.) Vertical Analysis (contd.) Vertical Analysis (contd.) Example: common-size statement Example (contd.) Vertical Analysis ? An Inter-company Comparison Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios Liquidity Ratios (contd.) Liquidity Ratios (contd.) Example: Clarity Corp. Liquidity /Activity Ratios Liquidity /Activity Ratios (Contd.) Liquidity/Activity Ratios (contd.) Liquidity/Activity Ratios (contd.) Liquidity/Activity Ratios (contd.) Example: Clarity Corp. Solvency Ratios Solvency Ratios (contd.) Example: Clarity Corp. Profitability Ratios-Company Related = Net Income Company Profitability Ratios (contd.) = Net Income+ int. exp. (net of tax) = Net Income – Preferred Dividends Example: Clarity Corp. Example: Contd. Profitability Ratios- Shareholders Related Profitability Ratios -Shareholders(contd.) = Net Income – Preferred Dividends Profitability Ratios – Shareholders(contd.) Profitability Ratios-Shareholders (contd.) Profitability Ratios- Shareholders (contd.) = Total Stockholders? Equity – Preferred equity Example: Clarity Corp. Example: Contd. Income Statement Irregular Items of Income Statement Irregular Items of Income Statement Extraordinary Items Examples of Extraordinary Items Other Revenues (or Gains) in addition to Expenses (or Losses) Changes in Accounting Principle Comprehensive Income Comprehensive Income (contd.) Comprehensive Income (contd.) Comprehensive Income Presentation: a combined Income Statement Format Quality of Earnings
Ethical in addition to Legal Questions about the USAPA The USAPA affects policies regarding wiretapping in addition to warrants As is common alongside such cases, it is asked ?Do these new changes violate Constitutional (Legal) Rights?? Many people have strong reservations about the need in consideration of privacy. ?Do these new policies violate the right so that privacy?? Ethical in addition to Legal Questions Debate has arisen over usefulness vs. legitimacy No cases has challenged the computer provisions in the USAPA yet Biggest concerns: email in addition to information handling Fourth in addition to Ninth Amendments in Question The Right so that Privacy Not expressly given in the Constitution Fourth Amendment is a compelling argument in consideration of privacy because it guarantees the right so that be secure in one?s own person, house, in addition to papers Fifth Amendment protects people from divulging certain information Ninth Amendment grants rights not expressly given in the Constitution
The Right so that Search only alongside Probable Cause Email interception has been treated in the USAPA as similar so that wiretapping Fourth Amendment requires probable cause in consideration of the issue of a warrant In Katz vs. U.S. 1967, the Supreme Court stated that the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person seeks so that keep private is constitutionally protected (phone conversations included) To reiterate: Who are the major sides in the argument in consideration of in addition to against the Patriot Act? U.S. Government offices such as the Whitehouse, CIA, FBI, in addition to Dept. of Justice are in favor. Civil Liberties Groups such as the ACLU, in addition to Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)are against it. Analysis of the USAPA by President Bush ?Surveillance of communications is an essential tool so that pursue in addition to stop terrorists. The existing laws were written in the era of rotary telephones. This bill met alongside an overwhelming support in Congress because it upholds in addition to respects civil liberties.
Analysis of the USAPA by the EFF ?It seems clear that the vast majority of sections included have not been carefully studied by Congress, nor was sufficient time taken so that debate it or hear testimony from experts. The civil liberties of ordinary Americans have taken a tremendous blow? Analysis of the USAPA by the Congressional Research Service ?Critics of the USAPA have suggested that it may have gone too far. The Act itself responds so that some of these reservations. Many of the wiretapping amendments sunset on December 2005. The Fourth Amendment protects private conversations, but it does not cloak even highly personal information [such as ISP records].? Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui How would the USAPA have affected the events leading up so that 9/11? In specific, we look at computer-related provisions in the USAPA We chose so that study the only case involving someone on trial in consideration of the 9/11 attacks: Zacarias Moussaoui
Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – Who was he? A 33 year old French-born Moroccan alongside a history of Muslim radicalism Entered the U.S. February 2001 in addition to immediately began learning how so that fly Studied at the Pan Am Flying Academy in Eagan, Minnesota He paid in consideration of his lessons alongside about $8000 in cash Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – Who was he? Instructors became suspicious because it seemed that Moussaoui was most concerned alongside steering aircraft, in addition to not landing or taking off FBI detained Moussaoui on August 17 in addition to he is now charged alongside 6 criminal counts concerning 9/11. Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui At the time of his arrest, the FBI found flight manuals in consideration of a Boeing 747, 2 knives, fighting shields in addition to a laptop computer The FBI was also notified by French Intelligence that Moussaoui was suspected of involvement alongside Islamic extremists
Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – FBI Requests a warrant The FBI requested a warrant under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) so that search his computer Denied due so that insufficient evidence that Moussaoui was involved alongside terrorists. It turns out that information regarding the spraying of pesticides from planes was among the content on his computer. Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – The Relationship so that the USAPA How does this case relate so that the Patriot Act? The requested in consideration of a warrant was under provisions by the FISA. These provisions have been updated alongside the USAPA There are additional provisions in the USAPA alone that could have allowed a warrant so that be issued Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – Details We are Interested In. Moussaoui was a suspected terrorist by French Intelligence He was suspected by the FBI in Minnesota so that be a terrorist
Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – The act of getting a warrant FISA is changed by USAPA so that state that terrorism only needs so that be a ?significant purpose in consideration of an investigation? ; this is less than ?probable cause? Other USAPA provisions could also have been used so that obtain a warrant Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What can the FBI do alongside that warrant? Under Section 219, a FISA warrant now entitles investigators the ability ?to coordinate efforts so that investigate potential hostile attacks? Would have allowed in consideration of the searching of his computer This is how computers are very much a part of this case! Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What was on his computer? Pesticide in addition to Crop Dusting Information In retrospect, relevant because of Anthrax Attacks What is important is the potential information!
Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What was on his computer? Ethical: Overall good so that American people is obvious Unethical action of invading Moussaoui?s privacy relatively minor? What is important is the potential information Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui Benefits of USAPA seem clear Disadvantages seem so that be minor We need so that examine other cases regarding the USAPA Case Study 2: Internet Service Providers Part of Corporate America How does the USA Patriot Act affect them? (Sec. 212) Law Enforcement?s POV Civil Libertarian?s POV Pro?s & Con?s Ethical Questions
Definition of Terrorism USAPA defines terrorism differently. Expands notion of ?domestic terrorism? Amends Computer Fraud in addition to Abuse Act by stating that computer crimes are ?terrorist offenses? Legal or not, is it ethical in consideration of an Anti-Terrorism bill so that do this? Final Thoughts privacy vs safety Patriot Act is definitely going so that change our lives It isn’t clear just how yet our goal in discussing the USAPA
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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – The act of getting a warrant FISA is changed by USAPA so that state that terrorism only needs so that be a ?significant purpose in consideration of an investigation? ; this is less than ?probable cause? Other USAPA provisions could also have been used so that obtain a warrant Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What can the FBI do alongside that warrant? Under Section 219, a FISA warrant now entitles investigators the ability ?to coordinate efforts so that investigate potential hostile attacks? Would have allowed in consideration of the searching of his computer This is how computers are very much a part of this case! Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What was on his computer? Pesticide in addition to Crop Dusting Information In retrospect, relevant because of Anthrax Attacks What is important is the potential information! and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.