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Theoretical concepts applied: Pierre Bourdieu?s triad (1992) The research Today?s presentation
Chowan College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, The Polish ?Intelligentsia? in London: a case study of young graduates working in the secondary sector Paulina Trevena Graduate School in consideration of Social Research Warsaw, Poland March 2005 Today?s presentation How do the well-educated cope alongside serious status inconsistency resulting from carrying out low-status work? feelings in addition to self-perception strategies of ego defence influence on values in addition to attitudes concerning work, education in addition to money Impact of working in the secondary sector on professional biographies in addition to future plans The research Qualitative research: semi-structured in-depth interviews (August/September 2004) Finding respondents: snowball + internet search 3 research areas: motives in consideration of migrating, influence of the experience on identity in addition to values, impact on aspirations in addition to plans in consideration of the future.
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The target group Why the ?Intelligentsia?? ? Polish graduates: bachelor?s or master?s degree In the ?mating stage? of their lives (Giza-Poleszczuk 2000) young in addition to single, alongside no dependants high flexibility in addition to inclination so that take risks willingness so that invest in further expanding their individual capital subject so that strong pressure on career in addition to economic achievement Living in addition to working in London in consideration of at least 12 months prior so that the research (pre-EU entries!) Had been/were doing physical work (in the secondary sector) Respondents? profile 20 respondents interviewed: 13 women, 7 men aged: 25 ? 33 graduated between 1996 in addition to 2002 18 had master?s degrees, 1 had a bachelor?s degree, 1 had a certificate of completion 13 majored in arts in addition to humanities: psychology, political science, history, philology, philosophy, library studies 6 in the sciences: environmental studies, nutrition studies, biology, engineering 1 in business studies arrived in the UK between 1996 in addition to 2003 professional experience prior so that migration: 10 persons had 1-3 years? experience 10 persons had no prior work experience Theoretical concepts applied: Pierre Bourdieu?s triad (1992)
Capital Social agents are endowed alongside three fundamental forms of capital: cultural, social in addition to economic cultural capital refers so that the agent?s knowledge, skills, competencies in addition to predispositions that enable him/her so that partake in social reality in addition to understand the surrounding world (educational background, knowledge, individual skills in addition to abilities) social capital is the sum of the agent?s resources in terms of actual or virtual networks of relationships (?who you know?) economic capital equals one?s financial resources (money, assets) Cultural capital of key importance so that the analysis (especially language skills in addition to educational background) Field ?A configuration, of objective relations between positions. These positions are objectively defined, in their existence in addition to in determinations they impose upon their occupants, by their present in addition to potential situation in the structure of the distribution of capital? Bourdieu 1992:97 A field is a set of outside conditions determining our situation within a specific area of activity. The actors? chances in consideration of success/mobility within the field are determined by what they have so that offer that is in demand within the field (= their capital) The migrant graduates can be seen as social agents who find themselves within the realm of two specific fields: ?the foreign labour field,? ?the homeland field? Habitus Consists of the social agents? dispositions acquired in the process of socialisation, in addition to is influenced by both collective in addition to individual conditioning A durable, but not fossilised structure The notion of habitus will be applied in consideration of the analysis of the individual customs, behaviour patterns in addition to internalised social norms (shared habitus so that a certain degree assumed in consideration of the graduates ? common experience/?class ties?)
LCSH in consideration of Art & Architecture Art Definitions Obsolete Practices (1) Obsolete Practices (2) More than one artist (H 1250) History (H 1250) Pattern headings (H 1148) (1) Pattern headings (H 1148) (2) Chronological Subdivisions under Art, Italian (H 1148) Pre-Medieval chronology pairing Other Pre-Medieval qualifiers More than one artist. Examples: styles, movements, themes More than one artist. Example: location, ownership (1) More than one artist. Example: location, ownership (2) Art by a Single Artist Art by a Single Artist Art by Individual Artists Criticism in addition to interpretation Catalog Subdivisions Example: Catalogs Example: Catalogs Example: Catalogues raisonns Example: Exhibition in addition to Catalogue raisonn Individual works of art (H 1250) Examples: Individual Works of Art Example: Individual Works of Art Decorative arts Example: More than One (Decorative) Artist Example: Decorative arts heading qualified by nationality Example: Individual (Decorative) Artist Architecture Obsolete/Current Practice Examples (1) Examples (2) National Qualifier Arrays in consideration of Chronology (Modern) Pre-Modern Architecture Pre-Modern Examples (1) Pre-Modern Examples (2) Pre-Modern Examples (3) Religious Buildings/Architecture Church buildings Buildings/Architecture Church architecture Synagogue architecture Vernacular Architecture (1) Vernacular Architecture (2) Architects/Architectural Firms Examples: Arrays in consideration of Firm, Architect (1) Examples: Arrays in consideration of Firm, Architect (2) Buildings (H 1334) (1) Buildings (H 1334) (2) Buildings: House Buildings: Church Exercises Exercise 2: The Modigliani caper ? Exercise 5: Salvador Dali Exercise 6: Louis I. Kahn ? Evaluating Headings (1) Evaluating Headings (2) Evaluating Headings (3) Evaluating Headings (4) Evaluating Headings (5) Evaluating Headings (6) Evaluating Headings (7)
The homeland field: conditions on the Polish labour market 1990-2004 Sudden rise in the number of graduates following the fall of Communism (1989) 1990 ? 56,000 1995 ? 89,000 2000 ? 215,000 2004 ? 384,000 Simultaneous rise in unemployment levels, (also among graduates) 1990 ? 6.5 % (0.7%) 1995 ? 14.9 % (1.5%) 2000 ? 15.3 % (4.8%) 2004 ? 19% (7.2%) The foreign labour field: position on the UK labour market The problem of legality of stay in addition to employment in the UK (pre-EU entries: 1996-2003) semi-legal or illegal status until May 1st 2004 forced so that work in the ?secondary sector? (Doringer & Piore?s dual labour market theory, 1972/ Sassen 2001 ?underground economy’) low/no skills jobs low pay rates bad working conditions lack of employment stability limited career prospects cleaners, bartenders, carers; catering, construction, in addition to hotel industries Perceptions of physical work in addition to self-perception as blue-collar workers General attitudes towards physical work gained respect in consideration of physical work feel that physical work is appreciated in the UK Personal feelings ? strongly dichotomised but: prevalence of negative feelings
NEGATIVE wouldn?t take up such jobs in their home country ?I?d never do such a job in Poland.? feeling of intellectual degradation: lack of development ? deadening fear losing their cultural capital feeling of inferiority due so that being perceived as unintelligent Girl working in a City cafe: ?They are convinced that if you work there you must be lazy or stupid or something, but you definitely aren?t somebody who has a degree in addition to wants so that achieve something in life.? POSITIVE feeling of freedom: lack of responsibility in addition to stress feeling of empowerment: being the ones who make work choices feeling of having become more self-reliant in addition to self-confident as so that their ability so that cope alongside various types of work, various tasks in addition to different people satisfaction connected alongside the final result of the work, alongside appreciation, good work relations The clash of habitus: co-workers in addition to customers Difficult so that work in an environment of completely incompatible capital in addition to habitus, i.e. where co-workers/customers are uneducated Girl working as a barmaid: ?They are simple people, very simple, in addition to I like them in addition to I respect them but sometimes I am annoyed that I have so that be among such simple people every day.? Those working alongside people of similar cultural capital (e.g. other educated migrants, students) are usually happy alongside the work atmosphere in addition to stay in jobs much longer
Ego defence: rationalising one?s position ? common strategies ?My job allows me so that live independently.? ? earning enough money so that maintain themselves, but according so that UK standards very low standard of living ?My job allows me so that fulfill my dreams.? ?I would like so that spend the next ten years on intensive travel. Being here gives me the opportunity in consideration of it. On the other hand, you have so that pay a price in consideration of having what you want. My shitty job is the price in consideration of such things.? ?Learning is more important than what I do.? ? learning as a refuge, a defence mechanism against stupefying manual work ?I do not get emotionally involved in my work.? ? lack of identification alongside one?s work Defence mechanisms continued ?Despite doing meaningless work, I still learn a lot.? ? e.g. learning English if working alongside native speakers, getting so that know the local culture, learning about other peoples? lives ?I am gaining invaluable life experience. ?I?m only doing this temporarily.? ?My work is a matter of my own choice. I do it because it gives me freedom.? ?I didn?t have any other option, I had so that do what I had so that do if I wanted so that stay here.? ? doing physical work as a matter of lack of choice, the only available option. Most common strategy among the ?long-term? migrants (5 years of stay or more) who intend so that move so that higher positions Individual rationalisation strategies Underlining one?s good work ?I am a good worker, what is there so that be ashamed of?? Finding negative reference points in the world of white-collar work ?Those who have proper jobs are often dissatisfied in addition to frustrated.? Drawing similarities between physical in addition to intellectual work An ex-editor: ?In my previous job I was putting words in addition to letters in order. Isn?t cleaning simply another kind of putting things in order?? Drawing comparisons so that limited work options in the ?homeland field? ?Graduates in Poland also work below qualifications.? Theatricalising ones work in addition to life ?We graduates of philosophy are now cleaners, waiters, bartenders. And the stupid audience believes this. But we know that we are special.?
Impact on attitudes: values concerning work expectations towards ?proper work? remain high simultaneous respect in consideration of physical work ?Physical work is simply extremely tiring. I admire people who can work like this in consideration of their whole lives.? work per se remains an essential value so that the graduates providing it is meaningful in addition to satisfying; but – meaningless/routinised work difficult so that tolerate lack of identification alongside their workplace in addition to employer cited as the biggest advantage maintain a strong work ethic in addition to treat their duties seriously Attitudes towards education: utilitarian in addition to autotelic worthless = non-transferable capital but ?the door so that career? studying in addition to education as a value per se; in addition to continually interested in expanding their cultural capital Attitudes towards money An ?intelligentsia ethos? ? leading the type of lifestyle they like is more important than economising (even if saving was the main motive behind migration!) ? money less imortant than other values: education, personal development, leisure time Generally satisfied alongside their renumeration despite earning around the minimum wage despite being aware that they lead a modest (even deprived) lifestyle according so that the standards of British society
Impact of working in the secondary sector on work biographies Key motive in consideration of migration ? not career related (2/20) The majority (11/20) have not yet sought upward mobility in the UK or do not plan so that 9 persons who decided so that ?move up the ladder? achieved their goal alongside varying degrees of success 2: lower blue-collar ? higher blue-collar e.g. cleaner ? shop assistant 3: physical work ? lower level white-collar e.g. ? receptionist, content administrator 4: physical work ? professional area e.g. ? journalist, reflexologist, engineer, psychiatric nurse Mobility in the foreign labour field – possibilities Prior so that EU accession largely limited so that the secondary sector; After May 1st 2004: influenced by capital (esp. language skills in addition to educational background) + prior work experience Horizontal (within the secondary sector) ? unlimited BUT Vertical (to the primary sector) ? highly limited ?A capital does not function except in relation so that a field? (Bourdieu 1992:101) the problem of transferability of cultural capital / lack of appropriate capital ?foreigner status? ? the higher up the ladder, the stronger natives are promoted ? the role of social capital Career plans Intended short-term stay in the UK (5 yrs realisation of the possibility of double marginalisation desperate so that achieve success The ?upward movers? slowly climbing up, often making non-linear progress would not go back so that physical work conscious of the limitations inherent so that their progress Gender difference: males? plans clear-cut, females more indecisive (on a declarative level)
Typology of migrants according so that their plans in consideration of professional mobility in the migration field Conclusions graduates resort so that their cultural capital in order so that protect themselves from being affected by the experience of status inconsistency ?Personal development is something that keeps me alive here.? developing a number of defence mechanisms. Generally, ?escapists? in addition to ?temporary workers? chose so that live day by day in addition to avoid giving unnecessary thought so that their status, ?rational career planners? concentrate on their professional life in addition to achievements values concerning work, money in addition to education seemingly unaffected or circumstatially affected; cultural capital remains an essential value generally maintain high professional aspirations, but ? in danger of double marginalisation: little or no basis in consideration of substantial advancement through the UK labour market (Atkinson, Williams 2003), difficult so that (re-)enter the highly competitive Polish labour market.
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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Typology of migrants according so that their plans in consideration of professional mobility in the migration field Conclusions graduates resort so that their cultural capital in order so that protect themselves from being affected by the experience of status inconsistency ?Personal development is something that keeps me alive here.? developing a number of defence mechanisms. Generally, ?escapists? in addition to ?temporary workers? chose so that live day by day in addition to avoid giving unnecessary thought so that their status, ?rational career planners? concentrate on their professional life in addition to achievements values concerning work, money in addition to education seemingly unaffected or circumstatially affected; cultural capital remains an essential value generally maintain high professional aspirations, but ? in danger of double marginalisation: little or no basis in consideration of substantial advancement through the UK labour market (Atkinson, Williams 2003), difficult so that (re-)enter the highly competitive Polish labour market. and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.