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Theories of the State State, Country, in addition to Nation Fundamentals of Political Science
Dixie College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Fundamentals of Political Science Dr. Sujian Guo Professor of Political Science San Francisco State Unversity Email: sguo@sfsu bss.sfsu /sguo State, Country, in addition to Nation A state is an organized political community, occupying a territory, in addition to possessing internal in addition to external sovereignty which successfully claims the legitimate use of coercion or force over its territory in addition to population. Country is the geographical area. Nation designates a people State theories Postwar Revival of Interest in Theorizing the State The postwar revival of theoretical interest in the state in comparative politics in addition to comparative political economy is a result of the world-wide trend in the expansion of the role of the state since the Great Depression in 1930s. The first major postwar revival of theoretical interest in the state began in Western Europe during the mid-1960s. This was mainly led by Marxists interested in the general form in addition to functions of the capitalist state; but a key supporting role was played by Marxist-feminists who extended such ideas so that the patriarchal capitalist state. A second revival during the late 1970s involved many more theoretical approaches or currents that attempt so that ?bring the state back in? which was originated in the United States. However, such theoretical approaches invited critiques from Foucauldian theory, feminism, in addition to other theoretical approaches in the 1990s.
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What factors have contributed so that the expansion of the role of the state? 1. In the industrialized world, the emergence of the managerial state so that combat the crisis of capitalism during the depression. 2. The widened scope of executive power during WW II in addition to the growing state regulative in addition to welfare functions in the post-WW II 3. The Third World countries in search of developmental model so that promote economic independence in addition to development, which called in consideration of the state so that play a major role in restructuring economic in addition to social systems. 4. However, the state was further brought back in comparative politics in addition to comparative political economy in the 1970s, because of the economic success of the developmental state in the NICs. Society-Centered vs. State-Centered Approaches Society-centered Approaches For the society-centered approach, the state is largely treated as a dependent, constrained, manipulated, in addition to responsive entity. Policy formation is understood as a response so that the expectations in addition to demands of those socioeconomic forces who control the largest armory of effective resources. Both the constraint of the state in addition to the predomination of the private actors in addition to groups are so that be understood in terms of variables outside the parameter of the state. Society-Centered vs. State-Centered Approaches State-centered Approaches For the state-centered approach, the state is largely treated as an independent, regulative, manipulative in addition to active entity in addition to an independent actor. The state is seen so that be autonomous in initiating policies in addition to turning its own policy preferences into authoritative actions. Taking the state seriously as an independent variable involves more than searching in consideration of state-centered account of high in addition to low autonomy, but entails the bringing together of state-centered in addition to society-centered approaches in a meaningful manner.
Theories of the State 1. Liberal or pluralist approaches 2. Marxist or class-analytic approaches 3. Weberian or state-centric approaches Liberal or pluralist approaches (1) believe that all human beings are created equal, that they are entitled so that certain unalienable human rights, including the rights so that life, liberty, in addition to property, in addition to that government exists so that protect those rights in addition to rule according so that the consent of the governed. (2) The primary motivating force is the competition between individuals who seek so that maximize their self-interests, satisfaction, or utility through the free market. Liberal or pluralist approaches (3) Therefore, these theorists emphasize the role of the market mechanism through which economic activity in addition to allocation of resources are coordinated while the state is a ?night-watch man? providing the conditions under which markets can be allowed so that operate as freely as possible. (4) They view the state as a neutral arbitrator between the competing forces in society. Since society comprises individuals in addition to interest groups in competition alongside one another in consideration of economic resources in addition to access so that power, the state acts in a neutral way so that ensure equality between the rival demands in addition to so that balance these pressure groups in order so that secure political in addition to social stability.
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Marxist or class-analytic approaches Anchor the analysis of the state in class analysis in terms of the state?s relationship so that the ownership system as the foundation of class relations in addition to its capacity so that promote the fundamental, collective interests of capital. Marxism rejects the starting point of liberal-pluralism (individuals) in addition to argues that it is impossible so that discuss any individual without at the same time discussing the total social relationships within which individuals interact alongside one another. Marxist or class-analytic approaches (3) The most fundamental of these relationships involves the ?mode of production? in addition to the ?social relations of production? which condition the social, political, in addition to economic life process in general in addition to the class conflict in particular. (4) Therefore, the state is seen as the coercive instrument of the ruling class, rather than an entity of providing neutral procedural guarantees in consideration of a free competition among classes, groups, in addition to individuals. The state is a committee in consideration of managing the common affair of the whole ruling class. Weberian or state-centric approaches Reject both class- or capital-theoretical account in addition to individualistic based explanation in addition to contend that the state can exercise autonomy in its own right in addition to in pursuit of its own distinctive interests. In other words, they emphasize the ways in which states constitute autonomous sources of power in addition to operate on the basis of institutional logics in addition to dynamics alongside variable forms of interaction alongside other sources of power in society or the ways in which the actions of the state are rooted in the interests, motivations, in addition to strategic dilemmas of the people who occupy positions in the state.
Weberian or state-centric approaches (3) Therefore, the state can neither be neutral alongside respect so that organized interests, nor be understood simply as a class bias, but has its own moral end in addition to pursues the common good in consideration of all. It rejects both liberalism in addition to Marxism in a sense that the state plays an independent role in policy initiative in addition to in the pursuit of the common good in consideration of the society, whereas both liberalism in addition to Marxism basically see the state as determined in addition to manipulated by the economic in addition to social forces. (4) It is this tradition that has shaped the revival of interest in the state or the theoretical current, named ?neo-statism,? so that ?bring the state back in? as a central explanatory variable in social analysis – the state apparatus should be treated as the independent variable in explaining political in addition to social events. Some Main lines of Criticism 1. Neo-statism is one-sided because it focuses on state in addition to party politics at the expense of political forces outside in addition to beyond the state. In particular, it seems so that substitute ?politicians in consideration of social formations (such as class or gender or race), elite in consideration of mass politics, political conflict in consideration of social struggle? (Gordon 1990: 181). 2. Neo-statism implies that politically autonomous state managers can act as effective agents of economic modernization in addition to social reform. But, no neo-statist case studies reveal the harmful effects of their authoritarian or autocratic rule. 3. Neo-statism rests upon a fundamental theoretical fallacy. It assumes there are clear in addition to unambiguous boundaries between state apparatus in addition to society, state managers in addition to social forces, in addition to state power in addition to societal power. It implies that the state (or the political system) in addition to society are mutually exclusive in addition to self-determining, each can be studied in isolation. It rules out hybrid logics such as divisions among state managers due so that ties between state organs in addition to other social spheres in addition to many other forms of overlap between state in addition to society.
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