Thermal Force Objectives Terms Temperature Measuring Temperature

Thermal Force Objectives Terms Temperature Measuring Temperature www.phwiki.com

Thermal Force Objectives Terms Temperature Measuring Temperature

Stover, Robin, Feature Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Thermal Force Unit 1.4 Objectives Define thermal energy Name the property of a body that determines its temperature. Given Celsius or Fahrenheit temperature in addition to the as long as mula as long as conversion, find the equivalent temperatures. Explain the difference between heat in addition to thermal energy Explain the relationship between heat transferred to an object in addition to the change in the object’s temperature Use specific heat, heat of fusion, in addition to heat of vaporization to solve problems involving heat transfer Terms (We will study energy in the next unit) Energy – the ability to do work. Potential energy – the stored or build up of energy; the capacity/ “potential” to do work. Kinetic energy – energy of motion. Thermal motion – the r in addition to om motion of vibration of an object’s atoms in addition to molecules. Thermal energy – the total energy of the thermal motion of all particles that make up an object

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Temperature Temperature is the “hotness” property of a body; it is the average kinetic energy of the r in addition to om motion of the atoms in addition to molecules in a body. Heat flows from regions of higher temperature to regions of lower temperature. Measured in degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Celsius. Thermal Energy is measured in Joules, Calories in addition to BTU’s Measuring Temperature Thermometer – uses expansion in addition to contraction of a liquid usually colored alcohol or mercury. Celsius scale – developed by Anders Celsius in addition to based on the properties of water. (0° = freezing; 100° = boiling) Fahrenheit scale – used in the US (32° = freezing in addition to 212° = boiling) Temperature scales TC = 5 9 (TF – 32) TF = 9 5 TC + 32

Heat Conduction – thermal energy flows from the hotter object to the cooler object as kinetic energy is transferred when particles collide. Heat is the energy that flows from one object to another because of temperature difference. Heat flow depends on temperature difference. As the temperature difference increases so does the heat transfer rate. (no temp. diff = no heat transfer) Temperature difference is the prime mover in thermal systems. Analogies to Prime Movers Mechanical – Force Fluid – Pressure Electrical – Voltage Thermal – Temperature Difference Specific Heat The specific heat (C) of a substance is the amount of energy that must be added to raise the temperature of a unit mass of the substance one unit of temperature. Specific heat of water = 1 cal g C° energy mass Unit of temp.

Change of State States of matter – Solid, Liquid, Gas, in addition to Plasma. Changes of state Changes in State Freezing Point – Temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid. Boiling Point – Temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas. Heat of Fusion (Hf)– the amount of energy required to change a melt a solid. Heat of Vaporization (Hv) – the amount of energy required to vaporize a liquid.

Changes of State The amount of heat (Q) needed to melt a solid of mass (m) is Q = m Hf The mount of heat (Q) needed to vaporize a liquid of mass (m) is Q = m Hv Summary The thermal energy of a body is the total kinetic energy of motion of all the particles that make up the body. The temperature of a body is determined by the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up the body. A thermometer measures temperature in degrees Celsius or degrees Fahrenheit. Heat is the energy that flows from one body to another because of a temperature difference. Whenever two bodies are brought together, heat flows from the body with higher temperature to the body with the lower temperature. The amount of heat transferred to an object varies linearly with the object’s temperature change, as long as there is no change of state: Q=mcT If heat is transferred to a substance in addition to it changes state, its temperature does not change. Measurements One calorie is the amount of thermal energy that must be added to water to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. One Btu is the amount of thermal energy that must be added to water to change the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.

Heat Transfer Q = m C T Heat transferred Object’s mass Specific heat Temperature Change

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Stover, Robin Feature Editor

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