This composite image of sunspot group was collected with the Dunn solar telescop
Regan, Gary, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal This composite image of sunspot group was collected with the Dunn solar telescope at the Sacramento Peak Observatory in New Mexico on Mar. 29, 2001. The lower portion, consisting of four frames, was collected at a wavelength of 293.4 nm. The upper portion was collected at 430.4 nm. The lower image represents calcium ion concentration, with the intensity of color proportional to the amount of calcium ion in the sunspot. The upper image shows the presence of the CH molecule. Richard P. Feynman (1918~1988) was one of the most well-known in addition to renowned scientists of the 20th century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. Spectrophotometry Spectroscopy : the science that deals with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Spectrometry : a more restrictive term, denotes the quantitative measurement of the intensity of electromagnetic radiation at one or more wavelengths with photoelectric detector. Spectrum (pl. spectra) : a display of the intensity of radiation emitted, absorbed, or scattered by a sample versus a quantity related to photon energy(E), such as wave length() or frequency(). wave length(, nm) or frequency(, cm1). Intensity Spectrum
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Absorption spectra of Fe(III)-salicylic acid complex. UV-visible absorption spectra of cefazolin antibiotics. Plane-polarized electromagnetic radiation showing the electric field, in addition to the direction of propagation. Electric field component of plane-polarized electromagnetic radiation. Properties of light : Electromagnetic radiation ; EM wave ; radiation ; radient ray ; ray ; light Duality ; 1) Wave theory — Huygens = c wavelength (cm/cycle) × frequency (cycles/sec) = velocity (cm/sec) where wavelength, , is the length per unit cycle. Frequency, , is the number of cycles per unit time. C = 2.99792458 × 108 m/s is speed of light 2) Particle (energy packets ; photon) theory — Newton E = h = hc / where E is the energy in joules (J) h is Plancks constant (6.62608 × 10 34 J s) 1 erg = 10 7 J 1 eV = 1.6021 × 10 19 J
Wave number, , is the number of cycles per unit length, cm. = 1 / = cm 1 (reciprocal centimeter ; Kayser) = / c = E / hc Ex. 400 nm x eV E = h = hc / 6.63 10 34 J s 3.00 108 m s 1 = 400 10 9 m 1.6 10 19 J/eV = 3.1 eV Change in wavelength as radiation passes from air into a dense glass in addition to back to air. Note that the wavelength shortens by nearly 200 nm, or more than 30%, as it passes into glass; a reverse change occurs as the radiation again enters air.
Regions of EM spectrum Designation Wavelength Energy or Transition range wave number Cosmic ray -ray X-ray Vacuum UV near UV Visible Near IR Middle IR Far IR Microwave Radio wave 10 12 m 10 11 m >2.5 105 eV 10 8 m 124 eV 180 10 9 m 7 eV 380 10 9 m 3.3 eV 780 10 9 m 1.6 eV 2500 10 9 m 4000 cm 1 50 10 6 m 200 cm 1 10 3 m 10 cm 1 0.3 m Nuclear K,L shell electron Middle shell Valence electron Molecular electron Molecular vibration Molecular vibration Molecular rotation Molecular rotation Electron, & nuclear spin The visible spectrum Wavelength Color absorbed Color observed (nm) (complement) 380-420 Violet Green-yellow 420-440 Violet-blue Yellow 440-470 Blue Orange 470-500 Blue-green Red 500-520 Green Purple 520-550 Yellow-green Violet 550-580 Yellow Violet-blue 580-620 Orange Blue 620-680 Red Blue-green 680-780 Purple Green ROYG RIV Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet
Types of interaction between radiation in addition to matter 1. Reflection & scattering 2. Refraction & dispersion 3. Absorption & transition 4. Luminescence & emission Emission or chemiluminescence Sample Sample Refraction Reflection A B Sample Scattering in addition to photoluminescence Absorption along radiation beam Transmission C Types of interaction between radiation in addition to matter. Several spectroscopic phenomena 1) depend on transition between energy states of particular chemical species E higher energy (excited state) E applied energy E o lowest energy (ground state) 2) depend on the changes in the optical properties of EM radiation that occur when it interacts with the sample or analyte or on photon-induced changes in chemical as long as m (e.g. ionization or photochemical reactions) Emission or Absorption Photoluminescence chemiluminescence A B C Antistokes Stokes Combination of nonradiative transition transition in addition to radiative deactivation D E F Common types of optical transition. non-radiative process Radiative process non radiative
Absorption methods. Photoluminescence methods. Emission or chemiluminescence processes. Absorption of EM radiation Sun Eye Visual center Source Monochromator Cuvet Detector P0 P b C Incident light P P dP db b b = 0 b = b Emerging light Molar concentration [C] Absorption of EM radiation
Color of a solution. White light from a lamp or the sun strikes the solution of Fe(SCN)2+. The fairly broad absorption spectrum shows a maximum absorbance in the 460 to 500 nm range. The complementary red color is transmitted. Attenuation of a beam of radiation by an absorbing solution. Reflection in addition to scattering losses with a solution contained in a typical glass cell. Absorption methods. Radiation of incident power 0 can be absorbed by the analyte producing a beam of diminished transmitted power (a) if the frequency of the incident beam, 2 corresponds to energy difference, E1 or E2 (b). The spectrum is shown in (c). Sample Incident radiation 0 Transmitted radiation (a) 2 1 0 E2 = h2 = hc/2 E1 = h1 = hc/1 (b) A 2 1 0 (c)
Lambert Beers law Transmittance T = P / P0 %T = (P / P0) 100 Absorbance (A, O.D., E, As) A = log T = log P/ P0 Lamberts law Lambert in addition to Bouger found that the intensity of the transmitted energy decrease exponentially as the depth (b ; path length of the beam through the sample) increases. dP = k P db dP/P = k db dP/P = k db ln P/P0 = k b log P/P0 = (k/2.303) b A = log P/P0 = (/2.303) b T A Path length Path length Effect of path length on transmittance in addition to absorbance of light. Beers law Beer in 1852 found that concentration (C) is a reciprocal exponential function of transmittance in addition to absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration. dP = P dC dP/P = dC dP/P = dC ln P/P0 = C log P/P0 = (/2.303) C A = log P/P0 = (/2.303) C Lambert – Beers law A = bC where is molar absorptivity Effect of concentration of analyte on transmittance in addition to absorbance of light. A [C] [C] log T Limitation Beers law 1. Concentration deviation ; A = log T = log P/P0 = bC (Eq 1) (0.434 / T) dT = b dC (Eq 2) Eq 2 ÷ Eq 1 (0.434 / T) dT log T dC / C = ÷ b b = (0.434 / T log T) dT C/C = (0.434 / T log T) T A [C] 4 2 1 C/C Twyman Lothian curve T = 36.8 % A = 0.434 normal working range15%T(0.824A)~80%T(0.097A)
2. Refractive index deviation A = bC [ n / (n2 + 2)2] where n is refractive index 3. Instrumental deviation ; difficult to select single wavelength beam max The effect of polychromatic radiation on Beers law. Choosing wavelength in addition to monochromator b in addition to width.Increasing the monochromator b in addition to width broadens the b in addition to s in addition to decreases the apparent absorbance. Absorbance error introduced by different levels of stray light. Deviation from Beers law caused by various levels of stray light.
Chemical deviation from Beers law as long as unbuffered solution of the Indicator HIn. 4. Chemical deviation ; dissociation or reaction with solvent ex. Acidic as long as m intermediate as long as m basic as long as m 5. Solvent deviation T = tsolution / tsolvent 6. Temperature ; narrower spectrum b in addition to at below 50C 7. Pressure ; gas phase sample Errors in spectrophotometric measurements due to instrumental electrical noise in addition to cell positioning imprecision. Typical visible absorption spectra of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine in different solvent. Absorption spectra of KMnO4
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Regan, Gary Freelance Columnist
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