Thomas Midgley Jr. invented Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Figure 15.29a: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 1979 Figure 15.29b: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 1986 Figure 15.29c: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 2005 Evolution of fuel use

Thomas Midgley Jr. invented Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Figure 15.29a: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 1979 Figure 15.29b: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 1986 Figure 15.29c: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 2005 Evolution of fuel use www.phwiki.com

Thomas Midgley Jr. invented Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Figure 15.29a: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 1979 Figure 15.29b: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 1986 Figure 15.29c: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 2005 Evolution of fuel use

Wills, Brad, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal By the end of the chapter, you will recognize that Chemistry is the study of matter, the physical substance of all materials. There is a difference between physical in addition to biological sciences that arises from natural science. DNA in addition to the purpose of the Human Genome Project – to explore, explore, explore The development of refrigerants is rooted as some interests in chemistry. A brief intro about the ozone layer. Distinctions of scientific discovery among basic science, applied science, in addition to technology. The use of fossil fuels used in everyday lifestyle in addition to global warming. The benefit in addition to risk analysis factors come into play.

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Chemistry is the study of matter in addition to the changes it can undergo. Chemistry is a member of the physical sciences Living in a World of Chemistry What does Chemistry Mean to You Maybe chemistry means to you. The amazing effect of nitric acid (b) on copper (a). A young man, Ira Remsen (1864-1927) dropped a copper penny into nitric acid to see what would happen. This is chemistry at work! What type of chemistry do you know that is daily in our lives Living in a World of Chemistry Natural Sciences have been associated with observation of nature. Our physical in addition to biological environment. The Natural Science Requires Mathematics Physical Sciences Study of matter in addition to energy Biological Sciences Study of living organisms Biochemistry Chemistry

Physical Sciences Study of matter in addition to energy Geology Astronomy Physics Chemistry Chemical Physics Cosmo Chemistry Geo Chemistry Analytical Physical Organic Inorganic Determination of structure & composition Basic physical processes of chemistry Carbon compounds Non-Carbon compounds Biological Sciences Study of living organisms Botany Zoology Microbiology Cell Biology Genetics Ecology Physiology Microscopic organism Cell structure in addition to Function Heredity Environment Function Biochemistry Chemistry Biological Sciences Toxicology Immunology Pharmacology Medicinal Chemistry Pathology Physical vs. Biological Sciences cont.

Living in a World of Chemistry DNA in addition to The Human Genome Project. DNA is an abbreviation as long as Deoxyribonucleic acid in addition to is present throughout our bodies. DNA provides the fingerprint of an individual. The study of DNA is one aspect of biochemistry An abstract picture of how DNA unravels in addition to is reproduced. In this way, a parent’s DNA is passed to the offspring. More to be discussed in Ch15. Living in a World of Chemistry DNA in addition to The Human Genome Project cont. In 2000, a revolution in our knowledge of DNA begins. A non-profit consortium called The Human Genome Project begins. The map of human DNA is completed in April 2003 where the location of every segment of human DNA is identified.

The original publication by the leaders of The Human Genome project make the following prophetic statement: Purpose of The Human Genome Project “It has not escaped our notice that the more we learn about the human genome, the more there is to explore.” Development of products that improve the health of humans, other animals, in addition to plants Underst in addition to ing of hereditary diseases Development of drugs to cure hereditary diseases Alternation of an individual’s genetic makeup to prevent or cure a disease The study of why a drug can be effective in some individuals but not in others Exact matching of drugs to an individual’s genetics makeup Development of improved agricultural crops in addition to animals Creation of genetically modified bacteria that will mass-produce desirable chemical products Use of genetic in as long as mation as long as a better underst in addition to ing of evolution Among these ongoing explorations are the following: Living in a World of Chemistry Air-Conditioning/Refrigerant. Refrigerants has been in use since the late 1800s. This process requires a fluid that absorbs heat as it evaporates, releases heat when it condenses, in addition to can be continuously cycled through evaporation in addition to condensation without breaking down. The development of chlorofluorocarbons, often referred to as CFCs, as much less hazardous refrigerants after WWII. Thomas Midgley Jr. invented Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Credit: Kettering University

Living in a World of Chemistry Air-Conditioning/Refrigerant cont. The Problem of using CFCs did not emerge until 1970 that would cause damage to the environment. By the 1980, it became clear that CFCs reacted with the stratosphere, where they interact with the ozone, in addition to started to destroying it. The Ozone Layer (Depletion) Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation, is like the Earth’s sunscreen. Increased ultraviolet exposure becomes harmful to the environment in addition to us. Figure 15.29a: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 1979 Figure 15.29b: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 1986

Figure 15.29c: Ozone hole over Antarctica, October 2005 Will learn more about ozone depletion later in the semester. Living in a World of Chemistry Distinguishing between basic science, applied science, in addition to technology. Basic science, or basic research, is the pursuit of knowledge about the universe with no short-term practical objectives as long as application in mind. Ex. Biochemists who struggled as long as years to underst in addition to exactly how DNA functions within cells were doing basic science. Applied science has the well-defined, short-term goal of solving a specific problem. Ex. The search as long as a better refrigerant by Midgley in addition to his colleagues. Living in a World of Chemistry Distinguishing between basic science, applied science, in addition to technology cont. Technology, also an application of scientific knowledge, is a bit more difficult to define. In essence, it is the sum of the way we apply science in the context of our society, our economic system, in addition to our industry. Ex. The first refrigerators in addition to automobiles air conditions designed to use CFCs were the products of a new technology or ways to manipulate DNA to make new medicines or other marketable products is referred to as biotechnology.

Living in a World of Chemistry Fossil Fuels in addition to Brief intro to Global Warming. Fossil fuels are coal, oil, in addition to natural gas to support consumer-driven societies in addition to their associated lifestyles. The fuels are burned in a variety of vehicles to propel down the road, through the air, or across the oceans. Other uses of fossil fuel include powering an engine, provide heat in addition to cool our homes, grow, harvest, provide health care, medicine, etc Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources, where eventually supply will run out! Evolution of fuel use

Wills, Brad NBC Newschannel 11 Nightside - KYMA-TV Meteorologist www.phwiki.com

Coal mining Living in a World of Chemistry Fossil Fuels in addition to Brief intro to Global Warming cont. Depletion of traditional sources of energy such as petroleum has led to the development of alternative sources of energy. Renewable energy sources can be replenished on a short time scale; e.g., solar power, wind, in addition to biomass. Water vapor in addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) are gases that are known to absorb in addition to trap heat radiation (Ex. in nuclear reactors).

Figure 15.15: Municipal solid waste recycling rates, 1960-2003 Source: EPA RECYCLE!!! Living in a World of Chemistry Fossil Fuels in addition to Brief intro to Global Warming cont. Global warming or the greenhouse effect is a warming of the Earth by a layer of gases that trap the sun’s energy. Human activity appears to be causing an increase in the amount of atmospheric CO2. Increased atmospheric CO2 appears to be enhancing the greenhouse effect, leading to an increase in average global temperatures.

Chemistry Basic science Applied science Technology Natural science Physical science Biological science Fossil Fuel

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