Three-Dimensional Dielectrophoresis Device with Integrated Actuating in addition to Impedance Sensing Lab on a chip Overview Device Overview Theory

Three-Dimensional Dielectrophoresis Device with Integrated Actuating in addition to Impedance Sensing Lab on a chip Overview Device Overview Theory www.phwiki.com

Three-Dimensional Dielectrophoresis Device with Integrated Actuating in addition to Impedance Sensing Lab on a chip Overview Device Overview Theory

Scott, Jeff, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Three-Dimensional Dielectrophoresis Device with Integrated Actuating in addition to Impedance Sensing Michael Beltran Robert Lam Bryan Lochman 12/14/07 Lab on a chip Lab on a chip technology will reduce the size of complex experimental setups. Eliminate large, bulky equipment. Move lab experiments to a non-lab environment. Especially useful in biological in addition to medical fields as long as local use. Overview Device Overview Theory Dielectrophoresis (DEP) DEP cage actuation Impedance sensing Device Fabrication Previous Devices Results Parasitic Cages Particle Concentration Recommendations Micro-scale device

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Device Overview 1cm electrode strips Induced DEP Cages Top conductive sealing layer Integrated actuation in addition to sensing Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325 Theory Dielectrophoresis (DEP) www-dsv.cea.fr/ /Image/Pascal/biopuces-64.jpg r – radius E – nonuni as long as m electric field – permittivity of medium Re[K] – Clasius-Mossotti Factor where Theory DEP – Governing Equation

= conductivity of electric field = angular frequency of electric field Varying these two variables will alter the permittivity of the particle/medium Theory DEP – Permittivity At low frequences: At high frequencies: Polarization Factor (K) can be switched between positive or negative values Theory DEP – Clausius-Mossotti Buoyancy Force: DEP in addition to Buoyancy: Theory DEP – Vertical Forces Iliescu, C.; Yu, L.; Xu, G.; Tay, F. A Dielectrophoretic Chip With a 3-D Electric Field Gradient, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2006, 15, 1506-1513

FDEP = volume (~r3) Fviscous = surface (~r2) Smaller particles will move slower Theory DEP – Ratio between DEP, Viscous as long as ces Progressively alternating electrode signals move particles towards target electrode Provides better sensing of particles Theory DEP – Cage Actuation Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325 The DEP Cages are able to move toward a target electrode by moving the counter phase signal to the next electrode closer to the target Theory DEP – Cage Actuation Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325

To measure the concentration of particles impedance sensing is used All electrodes are switched to ground except the sensing electrode The sensing electrode is connected to a transimpedance amplifier Theory Impedance Sensing Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325 Transfer function of the transimpedance amplifier: RM in addition to CM are the resistance in addition to capacitance between the electrode in addition to lid RF in addition to CF are the feedback resistance in addition to capacitance There are two sensing frequency ranges, low in addition to high, if the same signal is used as long as both DEP cage as long as mation in addition to sensing Theory Impedance Sensing – Transfer Function Low Frequency When w 1/(RMCM) in addition to w 1/(RFCF) the sensing equation is: The Clausius Mossotti factor at low frequencies, shows that a particle will only be trapped in the DEP cage if its conductivity is lower than the mediums giving rise to : These two equations show the output voltage will decrease with particles at low frequencies Theory Impedance Sensing at low frequencies

High Frequency When w>>1/(RMCM) in addition to w>>1/(RFCF) the sensing equation is: The Clausius Mossotti factor at high frequencies, shows that a particle will only be trapped in the DEP cage if its permittivity is lower than the mediums giving rise to : These two equations show the output voltage will decrease with particles at high frequencies Theory Impedance Sensing at high frequencies Original Fabrication No MEMS fabrication methods used Printed Circuit Board (PCB) techniques used to attach electrodes Silk screened the electrode pattern on to a gold clad board etched away the uncovered portion remove the screened resist Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325 Similar DEP Devices CMOS chip as long as individual cell manipulation 102,400 actuation electrodes (20m x 20m) Capability of manipulating 10,000 cells in parallel Lack of integrated sensing technique Manaresi, N.; Romani, A.; Medoro, G.; Altomare, L.; Leonardi, A.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A CMOS Chip as long as Individual Cell Manipulation in addition to Detection, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2003, 38, 12:2297-2305

Similar DEP Devices Dielectrophoretic Chip With a 3-D Electric Field Gradient Asymmetric 3D electric gradient achieved with specially configured electrodes Thick electrodes integrated into vertical wall structures, thin planar electrodes in bottom substrate Enhanced vertical DEP as long as ce (lower voltages in addition to temperatures) Iliescu, C.; Yu, L.; Xu, G.; Tay, F. A Dielectrophoretic Chip With a 3-D Electric Field Gradient, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2006, 15, 1506-1513 Similar DEP Devices MEMS electrostatic particle transportation system Electrostatic device capable of transporting particles in air Surface modifications per as long as med to reduce adhesive as long as ces Desai, A.; Lee, S-W.; Tai, Y. A MEMS Electrostatic Particle Transportation System. Sensors in addition to Actuators, 1999, 73, 37-44 Parasitic Cages as long as m between the two in-phase electrodes, electrodes 3 in addition to 4 in Figure (a) After actuating the DEP cage, a new parasitic cage will as long as m capturing the slow moving particles Results Parasitic Cages Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325

Results Parasitic Cages Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325 Add intermediate step: Creates a smaller chance slow moving particles will be trapped in the attraction basin of the parasitic cage Results Parasitic Cages – Minimize effects Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325 Reduce space between electrodes: Space between electrodes is nearly too small as long as particles to fit Only possible using MEMS fabrication techniques due to small spacing Results Parasitic Cages – Minimize effects Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325

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Results Modeling Assumptions Cage distribution far too complicated to be modeled at the level of individual particles Assumptions Particle cloud within the DEP cage can be modeled as homogenous Permittivity in addition to Conductivity depend solely on the ratio between the volume of microbeads in addition to suspending medium in the cylinder (distilled water). Results Signal Processing Fixed pattern noise (FPN) removed by subtracting initial non-cage reading (a) from cage reading, in addition to then addition of average initial reading. Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325 Results Optical observation Polystyrene microbeads, 3.46 µm diameter in H2O. 10 Vpp, 100 kHz 4 Concentration cycles Raw data on left Grayscale representation of data on right Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325

Electric field simulation in FEMLAB in a 2-D plane Simulation per as long as med as long as initial concentration in addition to 4 successive concentration cycles Resistance translated to voltage output with known current Results Polystyrene Microbeads Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325 Experiment repeated with S. cerevisiae yeast cells in 280-mM mannitol. Mannitol medium used to prevent overheating due to excessive conductivity S. cerevisiae displays pDEP behavior above 200 kHz, electrolysis occurs at less than 30 kHz Experiments per as long as med at 100 kHz Results S. cerevisia Medoro, G.; Manaresi, N.; Leonardi, A.; Altomare, L.; Tartagni, M.; Guerrieri, R. A Lab-on-a-Chip as long as Cell Detection in addition to Manipulation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, 3, 317-325 Recommendations Base layer of SiO2 with photoresist on Silicon Micro-fabrication

Recommendations Mated with wafer bonding over long electrodes, leaving wire-connection ports exposed Micro-fabrication Recommendations Mass production on a silicon wafer Glass cover with etched microchannel pattern in addition to common reservoir Micro-fabrication

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