Tools Tools Etiquette/philosophy Measuring tools Measuring tools

Tools Tools Etiquette/philosophy Measuring tools Measuring tools www.phwiki.com

Tools Tools Etiquette/philosophy Measuring tools Measuring tools

Howe, Genny, Features Editorial Assistant has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Tools Textbook Machining Fundamentals, John R. Walker, Goodheart-Willcox Company, Tinley Park IL (2004). $60 new, $35 used from Amazon. pp. 55-182. (Remainder is excellent, but not to be covered here.) Other sources McMaster-Carr catalog Grainger catalog Tools Definition: what is a “tool” 1. an implement, esp. one held in the h in addition to , as a hammer, saw, or file, as long as per as long as ming or facilitating mechanical operations. 2. any instrument of manual operation. 3. the cutting or machining part of a lathe, planer, drill, or similar machine. 4. the machine itself; a machine tool. 5. anything used as a means of accomplishing a task or purpose: “Education is a tool as long as success.” 6. a person manipulated by another as long as the latter’s own ends; cat’s-paw. [—Matt] [stolen from dictionary.com] “Things that you use to get stuff done.” A Matt original. Etiquette/philosophy If you use a tool more than a half dozen times, quit borrowing it in addition to buy your own. It will save you time in the long run. Always use the proper tool as long as the job. It’s not true that the only tools you need are a hammer, screwdriver in addition to vise grips! What is a hammer What is a screwdriver What are vise grips

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Measuring tools What are the tolerances of the job you are doing Can you pace off the distance or do you need an AFM to do the measurement (Remember the concept of the sanity check) Never over-specify tolerances Rulers in addition to straightedges Functions of rulers in addition to straightedges Rulers make great straightedges! For greater lengths use a piece of angle iron, channel The 4′ ruler is a great tool So is the “15 inch foot rule” ubiquitous in the Department Tape measures: avoid using the end as long as critical measurements, but be careful to do the math to correct as long as the fact that you are not starting your measurement at zero! Measuring tools Calipers Dial Advantage: easier to read, especially as long as old eyes Vernier: how to read a vernier. The underlying theory. Advantage: both “APS” in addition to metric on one instrument Digital also Measuring tools Micrometers Analog Digital Outside Inside Height gages in addition to indicators: how to tell if your surface is flat Squares Machinist’s Combination (triple combination) Framing

Fasteners in addition to their friends: Nuts in addition to bolts in addition to other stuff Screws Terminology A screw is a shaft with a helical groove or thread as long as med on its surface in addition to provision at one end to turn the screw. Its main uses are as a threaded fastener used to hold objects together, in addition to as a simple machine used to translate torque into linear as long as ce. Wikipedia (The Wikipedia entry as long as “screw” is excellent! Machine screws Wood screws Sheet metal screws; self-tapping screws Head types Flat, Round, pan, hex, socket SAE (“APS”) terminology: 1/4-20 in addition to 10-32 first number is original shaft diameter (if a fraction of an inch) or, as long as a whole number, related to diameter by d = 0.060” + ( 0.013”) second is number of threads per inch Metric diameters in addition to thread pitches: coarse in addition to fine threads Wood screws in addition to grabbers in addition to the “screw shooter” Accessories as long as Screws Washers Flat, lock, star when to use them Anchors in addition to inserts When in addition to where to use them Studs as long as concrete: epoxy makes them even meaner!

Non-Threaded Fasteners Pins Drift Roll Dowel Taper Nails Staples, etc Accessories The Brookstone Screw Chek’r Nothing but a plate full of tapped holes with sizes attached so you know what size of screw you have in your h in addition to . The Elemoto Screw Selector. An old-fashioned cardboard “slide rule” that gives you every dimension imaginable on screws, nuts, washers, etc., specifically including the size of drill you use prior to tapping a hole. Taps in addition to Dies The miracle of the Gun tap Taps Used to thread holes into material as long as inserting a screw Use a reference to determine hole size to drill as long as your tap; this is not an opportunity as long as creativity! Always use lubricant when tapping: Boelube Use minimum torque Reverse often to clean out the threads you are making Two-fluted Gun taps cut amazingly clean threads Plug in addition to bottoming taps Dies Used on rod to “make your own screw”

More on Taps from Wikipedia During operation, it is necessary with a h in addition to tap to periodically reverse rotation to break the chip as long as med during the cutting process, thus preventing an effect called “crowding” that may cause breakage. Periodic reversing is usually not practical when power tapping is involved, in addition to thus has led to the development of taps suitable as long as continuous rotation in the cutting direction. The most common type of power driven tap is the “spiral point” plug tap (also referred to as a “gun tap”), whose cutting edges are angularly displaced relative to the tap centerline. This feature causes the tap to continuously break the chip in addition to eject it into the flutes, preventing crowding. Another version of the spiral point plug tap is the spiral flute tap, whose flutes resemble those of a twist drill. Spiral flute taps are widely used in high speed, automatic tapping operations due to their ability to work well in blind holes. Lubricants as long as Tapping The use of a suitable lubricant is essential with most tapping in addition to reaming operations [ in addition to only slightly less so as long as drilling]. Recommended lubricants as long as some common materials are as follows: Carbon steel Petroleum-based or synthetic cutting oil. Boelube! Alloy steel Petroleum-based cutting oil mixed with a small amount (approximately 10%) of kerosene or mineral spirits. This mixture is also suitable as long as use with stainless steel. Cast iron No lubricant. An air blast should be used to clear chips. Aluminium Kerosene or mineral spirits mixed with a small amount (15-25%) of petroleum-based cutting oil. Other oils also work, including WD-40, 3-In-One Oil, in addition to mineral oil. Brass Kerosene or mineral spirits. Bronze Kerosene or mineral spirits mixed with a small amount (10-15%) of petroleum-based cutting oil. Drills Definition Something used to make holes Ambiguously refers to the tool in addition to its energy source Drill motors (the energy source) Reversible Variable speed Hammer the Hilti Corded in addition to cordless Drill presses (“mechanical advantage”) Magnetic base drill press Chucks Keyed Keyless chucks

Drill bits Fractional, letter in addition to number Metric Pilot holes Often the center of a large bit does not cut Large drills are very difficult to start where you want Center drills The concept of deburring Countersinks Single flute Others Carbide drill bits as long as concrete Hole saws Knockout punches The Hierarchy of Wrenches Box in addition to Socket Wrenches (At the Top of the Hierarchy) 6-point are stronger in addition to less likely to strip the corners off the nut/bolt head. 12-point give you finer gradations to work in tighter spots Ratchets in addition to breaker bars 1/4″ to 1″ drive Extensions U-joints (Universal) Lug wrenches Never use an air wrench to put the wheels on your car: you may not have one when you need to take it off!

Wrenches cont’d Open end wrenches (combination wrenches) “Crescent” (adjustable) wrenches Slip-joint pliers (Not a wrench, but can be misused as long as one!) Vise grips (Not a wrench, but can be misused as long as one!) Pipe wrenches (except when used on pipes) Strap wrenches The “cheater”, a piece of pipe that goes over the h in addition to le of the wrench in addition to extends it: the existential definition of torque The torque wrench in addition to torque specifications The act of stripping threads When the screw gets tighter in addition to tighter, then all of sudden easier to turn, you have a problem. Either stop immediately or replace what you just ruined. The “easyout”: great concept, works reasonably well as long as bigger bolts; impossible as long as really small ones, where you really need it! Hex keys, “Allen “ wrenches Torx wrenches Other Wrenches Open end wrenches (combination wrenches) Ford in addition to monkey wrenches (You are unlikely to ever see one.) Ford wrench Monkey Wrench

Galling “Galling is a cold welding phenomenon which can occur when uncoated stainless steel or aluminium alloy parts, such as the threads of nuts in addition to bolts, are as long as ced together. These materials owe their corrosion resistance to the ease with which they passivate, as long as ming a thin protective oxide layer. The friction scrapes off this oxide layer from the surface asperities in addition to exposes clean reactive metal. If the mating parts are of a sufficiently similar material, no additional activation energy is needed to cold weld them together. Stainless is most susceptible to galling, copper next, then aluminum. Never occurs with dissimilar metals. Galling, cont’d [asAperAiAty (-spr-t) n. pl. asAperAiAties 1. A. Roughness or harshness, as of surface, sound, or climate: the asperity of northern winters. B. Severity; rigor. 2. A slight projection from a surface; a point or bump. 3. Harshness of manner; ill temper or irritability.] Galling can occur even if the parts are brought together slowly It is prevented by the presence of grease or surface coatings, even if the surface coatings increase friction. It does not occur when joining dissimilar materials ( as long as example threading 18-8 stainless into 17-4 stainless) even though both of those materials are susceptible to galling. Galling does not occur on carbon steel. Leonard’s Famous Experience with Galling 1 each 12 KV, .25″ Single Conductor (185A) feedthrough w / 1″ baseplate flange $164.00 each Stainless nut galled stainless feedthrough In addition to being corrosion-resistant, stainless is very strong Nut had to be cut off with abrasive wheel!

Howe, Genny Sacramento Bee, The Features Editorial Assistant www.phwiki.com

Screwdrivers The utility of a screwdriver is directly proportional to the size (diameter) of the h in addition to le; cheap little screwdrivers are nearly worthless Flat Blade should fit the slot as tightly as possible Hollow ground vs straight taper Phillips The cheap ones are worthless because they are too pointy! Sizes: 1, 2, 3, 4 Screw-holding Split Clip Offset Impact screwdrivers Torx drivers Nut drivers Hammers in addition to Mallets Claw/ripping/framing Ball pein “Engineer”/sledge Dead soft/mallets Sledge Hammer Pliers, etc Lineman’s pliers Cutting pliers Parallel jaw pliers Slip joint pliers Channellocks (tongue in addition to groove pliers) Vise grips: “World’s mightiest h in addition to tool” Needle nose pliers Wire strippers

Grinding, Abrading in addition to Sharpening Applications Material removal Smoothing Files Terminology “Coarse”, Bastard”, “Second cut” in addition to “Smooth” refer to coarseness of file “Cut” refers to number of teeth per inch of length. Appears to vary with file length! Shapes: Flat, round, half-round, square File cards Rasps as long as wood “S in addition to paper” (Wiki) Materials used as long as the abrading particles are: flint — no longer commonly used garnet — commonly used in woodworking emery — commonly used to abrade or polish metal aluminium oxide — perhaps most common in widest variety of grits; can be used on metal (i.e. body shops) or wood silicon carbide — available in very coarse grits all the way through to microgrits, common in wet applications alumina-zirconia — (an aluminium oxide – zirconium oxide alloy), used as long as machine grinding applications chromium oxide — used in extremely fine micron grit (micrometre level) papers ceramic aluminum oxide — used in high pressure applications, commonly known as Cubitron by 3M, who invented sol gel ceramic grains. Abrasives cont’d “S in addition to paper” Historically abrasive was made from s in addition to glued to paper If still available, vastly inferior Aluminum oxide in addition to garnet are modern replacements SiC paper “Wet or dry” Worth the extra money Grit sizes: 60 to 1500 Emery cloth “For rust in addition to corrosion removal in addition to metal s in addition to ing. Cloth backed. “ Scotch-brite “Scotch-Brite™ H in addition to Pads are the alternative to steel wool that will never rust. Impregnated with aluminum oxide abrasive as long as fast cut, the durable, 3-dimensional nylon web resists tearing, shredding, in addition to loading as long as long life.”

Truly miscellaneous stuff Clamps Bar Pipe C-clamps H in addition to screws Putty knives. Putty Sheetrock compound Scraper Inspection mirror Where to buy quality tools There is no worse investment than a cheap tool. “Quality has no regrets.” Quality br in addition to s This isn’t easy: almost everyone makes good tools in addition to cheap tools in addition to they are not easy to differentiate. Quality also changes with time. Delta in addition to Powermatic stationary power tools Milwaukee, Makita, DeWALT, Hitachi, Bosch, Black in addition to Decker, Porter Cable You can get amazingly good bargains at Harbor Freight. You will rarely get very high quality. Klein, Craftsman Avoid Stanley H in addition to yman in addition to Sears Champion; Home Depot off-br in addition to s like Husky

Howe, Genny Features Editorial Assistant

Howe, Genny is from United States and they belong to Sacramento Bee, The and they are from  Sacramento, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Howe, Genny deal with the subjects like Calendar News; Features/Lifestyle

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