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Two Main Theories Background Information Out-of-Africa Theory: The Origin Of Modern Humans
Columbia International University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Out-of-Africa Theory: The Origin Of Modern Humans Presented By Adrian Padilla Background Information First species of Homo, Homo habilis, evolved in Africa around 2 million years ago. Later, a descendant of Homo habilis, Homo erectus evolved (along alongside other hominids), in addition to spread out of Africa. Homo erectus gave rise so that Homo sapiens around 100,000 so that 200,000 years ago. Two Main Theories Out of Africa Theory (OOA) ? suggests that Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens in Africa, in addition to then ventured out of Africa in addition to dispersed so that all around the world. Multi-regional Evolution Theory ? suggests that Homo erectus ventured out of Africa in addition to then evolved into modern man in several different locations through out the world.
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Genetic Tools so that Find the Answer Fossil records DNA sequencing Mitochondrial DNA analysis (mtDNA) Maternally inherited, therefore telling the story from the female side of human history Y Chromosome analysis Inherited down the paternal line, complementing the mtDNA Microsatellite DNA analysis Segments of tandemly repeated DNA alongside a short repeat length, usually 2-5 nucleotides Polymorphisms Polymorphism – Existence of a gene in several allelic forms. Polymorphic regions provide a very unique set of genetic markers in consideration of studying human origin in addition to migratory patterns. Used so that construct a global evolutionary tree of modern man
Mitochondrial DNA Out-of-Africa hypothesis was first sketched out in 1987, based on mitochondrial DNA analysis Suggested that modern man first appeared on the scene in eastern Africa about 150,000 years ago, in addition to left between 35,000 in addition to 89,000 years ago, eventually conquering the globe. Y Chromosomal DNA Study Researchers looked at DNA samples from 12,000 male Y chromosomes in Asia. Looking in consideration of 3 specific mutations on the Y chromosome known so that have originated in Africa. Researches found that every one of the 12,000 samples carried one of the three mutations or polymorphism Conclusion so that the Y Chromosome Study Little or no interbreeding of Homo erectus in addition to Homo sapiens. Individuals are descendants from Africa Likely that the early African man emigrated so that North Africa in addition to made the leap so that Asia in addition to then so that the rest of the world. Indicates that modern humans of African origin completely replaced earlier populations in East Asia.
Projections of population by origin: a summary of sources. Mortality Estimating net ethnic migration Some UK projections Conclusions
More Y Chromosomal Studies Samples were taken from men in 22 different geographical areas. In countries that included Pakistan in addition to India, Cambodia in addition to Laos, Australia in addition to New Guinea, America, Mali, Sudan, Ethiopia in addition to Japan. Researchers identified 167 polymorphic markers on the Y chromosome. Markers were then assembled into 10 types, called haplogroups. Findings from Y Chromosomal Analysis Assembled a phylogenetic tree showing a migration from eastern Africa into the Middle East, then southern in addition to southeast Asia, then New Guinea in addition to Australia, followed by Europe in addition to Central Asia. Some modern day men in Sudan, Ethiopia in addition to southern Africa are the closest lineal descendants so that the first Homo sapiens who left Africa New Guinea in addition to Australia were settled early in the process Japan has remained in genetic isolation. Mutations are strikingly different from those of surrounding populations, they account by themselves as a specific haplogroup Native Americans have a common ancestry alongside Eurasians in addition to East Asians Microsatellite DNA Analysis Researchers tried so that find the estimated time of the deepest split of the human population. Applied a genetic distance measurement so that 30 microsatelite regions so that construct a pylogenetic tree in consideration of 14 world-wid human populations
What did they find? In the tree obtained, the deepest root separated Africans from non-Africans. Their calculations suggest the split ahppened an en estimated 115,000 so that 156,000 years ago. mtDNA Analysis Study on the complete mitochondrial genome. 16,500 base pairs in each sequence 53 people diverse from different geographical, racial, in addition to linguistic backgrounds. Results A tree rooted in Africa Tree suggests that some Africans are closer so that Europeans in addition to Asians than so that other Africans.
Fossils Archeologists find a fossil in Herto, Ethiopia dating about 160,000 years old The oldest fossil found of Homo sapiens dates back 115,000, in addition to is found in Israel. Researches link the fossil found in Israel so that the fossil in Herto, Ethiopia in addition to other fossils found in Africa, based on physical characteristics of the skull. Conclusion DNA sequencing evidence shows that modern humans originated in Africa in addition to migrated north out of African, then eventually so that the rest of the world. Oldest fossils of modern humans are found in Africa dating around 160,000 years old.
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