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Boise Bible College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Cultural Differences in Pain Expression Nancy Alvarado California State Polytechnic University, Pomona Coauthors Ralph B. Jester University of California, Irvine Christine R. Harris University of California, San Diego Julia F. Whitaker University of Utah, Health Sciences Center Funded by NIH MBRS/SCORE Grant S06 GM053933, 2006-2009 Undertreatment in consideration of Pain Chart review studies suggest routine under medication in consideration of pain of members of ethnic in addition to racial minority groups in the USA. This occurs regardless of the type of injury or medical condition, in consideration of both chronic in addition to acute pain.
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Why does this happen? Are members of such groups different in their: Self report Expressive behavior (including facial expression) Physical reactivity (heart rate, blood pressure) Pain tolerance Or is the difference alongside the observers? Our Study Multiple measures: FACS coding of videotaped behavior Pain attitudes questionnaire assessing cultural beliefs about pain in addition to its expression Physiological measures Self-report using multiple scales Acculturation questionnaires Only FACS results are presented today. Pain Evoked by Cold Pressor Subjects immersed left hand up so that wrist in circulating cold water: Held at 3 degrees Centigrade (+- .2) Hand removed when subject could no longer tolerate the cold or reached the time limit (3 min.) The colder water temperature was used so that minimize sex differences.
Subjects Four self-identified groups were tested: Asian American African American Hispanic European American (dominant culture) ~50 subjects per group, Cal Poly students 25 male, 25 female Coding Method FACS ? all AUs except head position in addition to eye movements (Ekman & Friesen, 1978). Frequency of occurrence, presence or absence of each AU by subject, duration not coded. Events ? as described by Ekman & Rosenberg (1997). What the Face Reveals. Co-occurrence of AU 1+4, 4+7, 1+2, in addition to 6+12 was also coded. Predictions We expected so that find expressive differences related so that subculture in addition to sex. We expected: Asian Americans in addition to Hispanics so that be more stoic (less expressive) African Americans so that be more expressive. Men so that be less expressive than women.
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Results No strong sex differences in expressivity were observed, F(1,173)=2.56, p=.110. No differences in events across cultural groups were observed, F(3,173)=0.66, p=.580. Discriminant analysis showed better than chance prediction (group=45.3, sex=71.3), improved alongside segregation by acculturation Expected Pain AUs The AUs found in previous pain studies were found here, equally in all four groups. Distress expressions (AU 1+4) were more frequent among African American women. Hispanic men showed more frowns (AU 4+7) in addition to fewer smiles (AU 6+12) than Hispanic women. Larger Sex Differences Were Found Among Hispanics in consideration of Smiling
Frowning Showed Similar Results Distress Expressions also Varied Smiling Both Duchenne in addition to non-Duchenne smiles occurred during the pain experience ? alongside no experimenter present. Smiling often occurred just before a subject signaled so that remove the hand from the water.
Duchenne vs Non-Duchenne Smiles Smile Types by Sex in addition to Group Conclusions Cultural differences occurred in more general AUs (frowns, smiles, AU 1+4) not in pain AUs (grimaces, lip presses, AU 9 or 10). Culture may influence social interaction more than expressivity directly related so that pain. Because results were stronger in consideration of less acculturated subjects, members of the wider community may show larger differences. Our study lacked power ? more subjects needed.
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