University of Cali as long as nia, Berkeley University of Cali as long as nia, Los Angeles Desirable Difficulties in Science Learning in a Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) Marcia C. Linn, Robert A. Bjork, Lindsey E. Richl in addition to , Britte H. Cheng, Nate Kornell, Matthew J. Hays, Jason R. Finley, Dan S. Fink Generation – Laboratory IDDEAS Goals in addition to Research Reflections

University of Cali as long as nia, Berkeley University of Cali as long as nia, Los Angeles Desirable Difficulties in Science Learning in a Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) Marcia C. Linn, Robert A. Bjork, Lindsey E. Richl in addition to , Britte H. Cheng, Nate Kornell, Matthew J. Hays, Jason R. Finley, Dan S. Fink Generation - Laboratory IDDEAS Goals in addition to Research Reflections www.phwiki.com

University of Cali as long as nia, Berkeley University of Cali as long as nia, Los Angeles Desirable Difficulties in Science Learning in a Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) Marcia C. Linn, Robert A. Bjork, Lindsey E. Richl in addition to , Britte H. Cheng, Nate Kornell, Matthew J. Hays, Jason R. Finley, Dan S. Fink Generation – Laboratory IDDEAS Goals in addition to Research Reflections

Born, Lee, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal University of Cali as long as nia, Berkeley University of Cali as long as nia, Los Angeles Desirable Difficulties in Science Learning in a Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) Marcia C. Linn, Robert A. Bjork, Lindsey E. Richl in addition to , Britte H. Cheng, Nate Kornell, Matthew J. Hays, Jason R. Finley, Dan S. Fink Generation – Laboratory Introducing Desirable Difficulties as long as Educational Applications in Science (IDDEAS) seeks to take advantage of powerful findings from laboratory research to improve science learning. Desirable difficulties are instructional activities that slow the rate of learning—even increasing errors—but lead to better per as long as mance on subsequent assessments. Generation/Testing Interleaving Spacing We focus on testing desirable difficulties with more complex materials in addition to longer retention intervals than are typical of laboratory studies, in addition to on carrying out parallel classroom studies. Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE, http://wise.berkeley.edu) as a research tool: Delivers scientific educational content in multiple as long as mats Offers a number of customizable ready-made modules Authoring tools enable experimental manipulation Gathers embedded assessments of student progress Already in use in many classrooms Reflections In both laboratory in addition to classroom contexts, some desirable difficulties were found to benefit learning, some were not, in addition to some were found to interact with other factors. Our findings both extend previous psychology in addition to education research in addition to raise new questions. Translating desirable difficulties to classroom education is less than straight as long as ward, in addition to requires addressing previously unconsidered issues. Generalizing laboratory results requires new research designs in addition to new assessment practices Classroom studies raised issues about how to take advantage of the social context of the classroom. IDDEAS Goals in addition to Research Reflections Participants Interleaving – Laboratory http://www.psych.ucla.edu/iddeas/ Advantages In laboratory settings, interleaving naturally introduces the positive effects of spacing. Interleaving increases difficulty during learning, which can improve learning. Interleaving may promote knowledge integration across related concepts. Complications Cumulative in addition to narrative in as long as mation requires ef as long as tful, deep processing even in the absence of interleaving. In the absence of repetition, in as long as mation does not benefit from multiple spaced repetitions. Generation has robust effects on laboratory learning Generation – Classroom Inter-topic generation had a robust positive effect on learning This result is especially interesting considering that per as long as mance during study was higher on the intra-topic generation. Intra-topic Embedded assessment Interleaving in addition to Spacing Spacing in addition to interleaving may be effective to the extent that they require generating/reloading previously learned in as long as mation Spacing in addition to interleaving are hard to separate because interleaving necessitates spacing In a series of 4 experiments using as long as eign language vocabulary we have not found a consistent advantage of interleaving above in addition to beyond the benefits of spacing. In a series of 4 experiments we examined the effects of generation on learning of complex science material. Complex Science Learning Astronomy activities were taught using the Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) Embedded Assessments Prompt students to retrieve previously learned in as long as mation from memory Serve as assessments in addition to learning events Types of Generation Generation within a topic (intra-topic generation) promotes fact learning. Generation across topics (inter-topic generation) promotes knowledge integration. Effects of learning conditions Interleaving is beneficial under educationally realistic conditions as long as learning discrete concepts such as geometry as long as mulas (Taylor, Rohrer & Pashler, 2006). In a series of 5 experiments we examined the effects of interleaving on learning of complex science material: Astronomy: planet mass vs. planet distance from sun star as long as mation vs. planet as long as mation Malaria vs. Genetically Modified Foods We found no straight as long as ward advantages of interleaving, but have identified key issues in addition to found significant interactions. Other Interactions We have found the effects of interleaving of educational material interact with: time of testing (learning vs. post-test) recall prompts during learning type of post-test question (example below) Interaction of Presentation Order with Type of Post-test Question, 48 hour delay (sig. p < .05) [using Astronomy materials: mass vs. distance] References: Taylor, K. M., Rohrer, D., & Pashler, H. (2006, May). The Benefits of Mixed Practice on the Long-Term Retention of Mathematical Skills. Poster presented at the 18th annual convention of the Association as long as Psychological Science, New York, NY. Interleaving - Classroom Examining Instruction in addition to Presentation Order Will blocked or interleaved sequence of instruction better support student learning In a classroom study, instruction was delivered via WISE. Students were introduced to basic physics principles in the context of the search as long as life on planets outside our solar system. Using WISE, it was possible to carefully control: Instructional delivery (sequence in addition to wording) Reflection prompts Visual stimuli Examining Instruction in addition to Reflection Prompts In 3 classroom studies, we studied the effects of generation (in the as long as m of various types of reflection prompts) on learning of astronomy material delivered via WISE Research Settings: Study One San Francisco Bay Area urban public school ~140 8th grade students Large range of reading ability, socio-economic status Teacher had over 10 years experience (new to WISE) Studies Two & Three San Francisco Bay Area suburban public school ~185 8th grade students Some range of reading ability, SES Teacher’s second/third year teaching ( in addition to using WISE) Per as long as mance on Post-test (48 hour delay) by type of generation during learning. Order of Instruction: F (1,94) = 6.010, p = .016 Order of Instruction: F (1,115) = 1.989, p = .16 Results: Open-ended items (Post-test) In studies 1 & 2, reflection opportunities that prompted students to integrate concepts were more beneficial than those that did not. Interleaving was beneficial as long as student learning as measured by a solar system modeling task, but not by open-ended post-test questions. Study 2 Results: Post-test (1 week delay) Reflection Prompt: F (1,172) = 3.946 , p = .049 Marcia Linn Principal Investigator University of Cali as long as nia, Berkeley Robert Bjork Principal Investigator University of Cali as long as nia, Los Angeles Britte Cheng Graduate Student University of Cali as long as nia, Berkeley Lindsey Richl in addition to Post-doctoral scholar University of Cali as long as nia, Irvine Nate Kornell Post-doctoral scholar University of Cali as long as nia, Los Angeles Matthew Hays Graduate Student University of Cali as long as nia, Los Angeles Dan Fink Researcher University of Cali as long as nia, Los Angeles Jason Finley Researcher University of Cali as long as nia, Los Angeles In studies 1 & 2, reflection prompts during instruction were fill-in-the-blank in addition to were either integrated (across multiple concepts, e.g., mass & distance) or non-integrated (within one concept). In study 3, prompts were open-ended in addition to varied in their scope (narrow or broad), in addition to complexity (simple or complex). Results: Modeling Task Scores Michele Spitulnik, Postdoctoral scholar & TELS Affiliate; Erika Tate, Graduate Student & TELS fellow; Turadg Aleahmad, TELS technology leader; Corrie Garner, Middle school science teacher Participating school districts: Mt Diablo Unified School District, Berkeley Unified School District UCLA Undergraduate Research Assistants: Alex in addition to ra Hessenius, Amy Moore, Asako Kameya, Blaize Wallace, Carlyn Crisostomo, Catherine Hong Vo, Elizabeth Goss, Erin Glass, Fern in addition to o Cervantes, Francis Yau, Greg Cragg, Jeffrey Beyers, Jenny Yevginya Bukshpun, Jerry Lin, Jesse Venticinque, Karthik Gunnia, Katherine Huang, Katy Cohanshohet, Kerry Young, Lindsay Petersen, Liza Saglamer, Makah Leal, Matt Vincent, Melissa Lox, Richard Lee, Ross Otto, Shannon Liu, Sharon Jung, Tabasom Dadv in addition to , Taylor Hanan, Thao Lee, Timothy Wong, Yasi Shamtoub Davidson College US www.phwiki.com

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