We likely throw away a lot line drawings are universal Single Surface (Koenderink’s trick) Figure/Ground Organization Line Labeling

We likely throw away a lot line drawings are universal Single Surface (Koenderink’s trick) Figure/Ground Organization Line Labeling www.phwiki.com

We likely throw away a lot line drawings are universal Single Surface (Koenderink’s trick) Figure/Ground Organization Line Labeling

Bachman, Mark, Morning Show Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Computational Theories & Low-level Pixels To Percepts A. Efros, CMU, Spring 2009 Four Stages of Visual Perception © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Ceramic cup on a table David Marr, 1982 Four Stages of Visual Perception © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 The Retinal Image

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Four Stages of Visual Perception © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Image-based Representation Retinal Image We likely throw away a lot line drawings are universal

Four Stages of Visual Perception © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Surface-based Representation Image-based Representation Single Surface (Koenderink’s trick) Four Stages of Visual Perception © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Surface-based Representation Image-based Representation

Figure/Ground Organization A contour belongs to one of the two (but not both) abutting regions. Important as long as the perception of shape © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Properties of figures vs. grounds 15.18 Figure Ground Thing-like Not thing-like Closer Farther Shaped Extends behind Figure-Ground Organization © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Surroundedness 15.19 Figure-Ground Organization Surrounded region -> Figure Surrounding region -> Ground

© Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Size 15.20 Figure-Ground Organization Smaller region -> Figure Larger region -> Ground © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Orientation 15.21 Figure-Ground Organization Horizontal/vertical region -> Figure Oblique region -> Ground © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Contrast 15.22 Figure-Ground Organization Higher contrast region -> Figure Lower contrast region -> Ground

© Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Symmetry 15.23 Figure-Ground Organization Symmetrical region -> Figure Asymmetrical region -> Ground © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Convexity 15.24 Figure-Ground Organization More convex region -> Figure Less convex region -> Ground © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Parallelism 15.25 Figure-Ground Organization More parallel region -> Figure Less parallel region -> Ground

© Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Lower region 15.26 Figure-Ground Organization Lower region -> Figure Upper region -> Ground © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Meaningfulness 15.27 Figure-Ground Organization More meaningful region -> Figure Less meaningful region -> Ground © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Relation to Depth Factors 15.28 Figure-Ground Organization Figure-ground organization as edge assignment: To which side does the edge belong Depth cues can also be figure-ground factors in addition to Figure-ground factors can be depth cues. To the closer side. This fact connects figure-ground organization with depth perception.

© Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Occlusion 15.29 Figure-Ground Organization Occluding region -> Figure Occluded region -> Ground © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Cast Shadows 15.30 Figure-Ground Organization Shadowing region -> Figure Shadowed region -> Ground © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Principles of figure-ground organization: Shading 15.32 Figure-Ground Organization Shaded region -> Figure Nonshaded region -> Ground

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Line Labeling [Clowes 1971, Huffman 1971; Waltz 1972; Malik 1986] Line Labeling

Four Stages of Visual Perception © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Object-based Representation Surface-based Representation Geons (Biederman ’87) Four Stages of Visual Perception © Stephen E. Palmer, 2002 Category-based Representation Object-based Representation

A closer look at amplitude spectra (Torralba & Oliva 2003) Do natural image statistics matter Sensory coding might exploit statistical regularities of our world according to various criteria: Representational efficiency Decorrelate input responses, make them independent, sparse, in as long as mation theoretic metrics etc. Metabolic efficiency Spike efficiency, minimal wiring. Learning efficiency Sparseness, invariance, over completeness etc. Lots in addition to lots of work; see reviews Graham & Field (2007), Simoncelli & Olshausen (2001)

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