Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, in addition to L in addition to scapes Weathering – the breakdown of ro

Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, in addition to L in addition to scapes Weathering – the breakdown of ro www.phwiki.com

Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, in addition to L in addition to scapes Weathering – the breakdown of ro

Garrison, Kelly, Features Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, in addition to L in addition to scapes Weathering – the breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces, called sediments. Erosion – the process where the sediments are transported by wind, gravity, glaciers, man, in addition to running water. Deposition – the process whereby these sediments are released by their transporting agents (dropped). Weathering breaks down the rocks, erosion moves the particles, in addition to deposition drops the sediments in another location. There are two primary types of weathering: Chemical in addition to Physical 1. Physical Weathering – the breakdown of rocks in addition to minerals into smaller pieces without a change in chemical composition. Root/Plant Wedging/Action Ice/Frost Wedging/Action Exfoliation in addition to Abrasion are also types of physical weathering. 2. Chemical Weathering – the breakdown of rocks in addition to minerals into smaller pieces by chemical action. The rocks breaks down at the same time as it changes chemical composition. The end result is different from the original rock. There are 3 types of chemical weathering: 1. Oxidation – oxygen combines with the elements in the rock in addition to it reacts. This the scientific name as long as rust. 2. Hydration – water can dissolve away many earth materials, including certain rocks. 3. Carbonation – carbon dioxide dissolves in water to as long as m carbonic acid. This makes acid rain which chemically weathers (dissolves) rocks. Other acids also combine with water to make acid rain.

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2. Particle Size – Larger particles weather slower in addition to smaller particles weather at a faster rate. There are 4 factors that effect the rate of weathering: 1. Surface Area (exposure) – Exposing more surface area will increase the rate of weathering. 3. Chemical Composition (what a rock is made of) – Certain rocks in addition to minerals are naturally weaker than others, while others are more resistant (stronger). 4. Climate – Warmer, moister climates have the most weathering. Heat & Water speed up all chemical reactions. This is the most important factor in weathering. Soil as long as ms from the weathering of the rock below it. The solid rock below is called Bedrock. The rock is exposed to wind, rain etc The rock breaks down over time to as long as m soil. Soil has different layers called Soil Horizons. O- Horizon = the very thin surface covering (not really a layer) A – Horizon (TOPSOIL) = dark surface soil that contains a lot of living material in addition to dead plant/animal remains (humus). This is the layer with all of the nutrients needed to grow plants. B-Horizon (SUBSOIL) = lighter colored soil with less nutrients in addition to more clay C-Horizon (REGOLITH) = larger rock fragments that sit on top of the unweathered bedrock There are 2 types of soil: Transported Residual Transported soils are the most common throughout New York State!!!!!!!! Transported Soils – soils that as long as med in one place in addition to were transported to their present location by glaciers. You can tell when the soil does not chemically match the bedrock below it. Residual Soils – soils that are located above the rocks that they as long as med from. In other words, the soil chemically matches the bedrock below it, because it is a product of that rock’s weathering over time.

What type of weathering occurs in an area that has an average of 165 cm of rain each year in addition to an average temperature of 18°C — What type of weathering occurs in an area that has about 140 cm of precipitation each year in addition to an average temperature of 5°C —- Erosion (transport) There are 5 main agents of erosion: Running Water Glaciers Wind Gravity Man Weathering has to happen be as long as e erosion. The rocks have to be broken into smaller sediments be as long as e they can be eroded away. Wind Erosion Glacier Which rock layer appears to be the least resistant (weakest) – Resistant rocks usually as long as m steep cliffs in addition to waterfalls, by sticking out further than the lower layers. Which rock layer appears to be the most resistant (strongest) – Stream erosion is the greatest at waterfalls. Erosion at waterfalls is called undermining.

There are 4 basic products of weathering, that can be eroded: Soils Solid Sediments (boulders, cobbles, pebbles, s in addition to , silt) Colloids/Clay Particles (not visible to your eye) Ions (very small electrically charged particles) Mount Rushmore There is a pile of weathered material at the bottom. It is slowly being eroded down hill by gravity. It will not be there as long as ever!! You can identify which agent of erosion transported each sediment by looking at a few characteristics: Running Water – sediments that have been transported through running water appear rounded in addition to smooth in addition to are deposited in sorted piles. Glaciers – sediments that have been transported by glaciers appear scratched, grooved, in addition to are deposited in completely unsorted piles, because they were dropped during melting. Also, boulders can only be transported by glaciers. Wind – sediments that have been transported by wind are appear pitted (r in addition to om holes) in addition to frosted (glazed look) in addition to are deposited in sorted piles. Only very small particles can be transported by wind. Gravity – sediments that are transported by gravity are found in piles at the bottom of cliffs or steep slopes. They appear angular in addition to unsorted.

Melbourne dust storm, 1983 Extreme Wind Erosion The rocks to the right were transported by running water. How can you tell — Glacial Striations (scratches) Running water can transport sediment in three ways: Solution – the smallest particles of weathering are dissolved in the water in addition to they are transported in a solution. Suspension – clay sized/colloids are carried along with the water molecules during erosion. They are neither at the bottom or on the top. They are suspended in the middle of the running water. Saltation – solid sediments are rolled in addition to bounces along the bottom of a river.stream because they are more dense. Erosion vocabulary in addition to facts: The sediments that are being transported by the river/stream are traveling a little bit slower than the water. This is because of friction. Stream/River Bed – the bottom of a stream or river. Bed Load – the material being transported along the bottom of a river/stream (rocks in addition to pebbles). Downcutting – when weathering in addition to erosion, along with the running water, cause the stream/river to become wider in addition to deeper over time. Younger streams/rivers are more shallow in addition to narrow. Older rivers/streams are wider in addition to much deeper.

Stream Drainage Patterns This is how water drains off of mountains that are made of many different rocks. This is how water drains in faulted areas or areas that are made of many different rocks. This is how water drains in flat areas & areas that are made of the same rock types. This is how water drains from mountains in addition to volcanoes that are made of the same rocks. Factors that influence erosional rates (speed) in running water in addition to glacial ice: Slope (gradient) of the l in addition to – as slope increases, the water velocity increases, the particle size that the water can carry also increases, there as long as e the amount of erosion increases. Volume (size of the water or glacier) – as the volume of the water or glacier increases, their velocities increase, the particle size that they can carry also increases, there as long as e the amount of erosion increases. Position within the running water – Water is traveling faster around the outside of turns, there as long as e that is where more erosion occurs. Water is traveling slower on the inside of turns, there as long as e deposition occurs on the inside. (see diagram on next slide) Me in addition to ering (Curving) River/Stream Straight Flowing River/Stream Sediments are traveling the fastest in the center directly below the surface. Erosion happens on the outside of turns. Deposition happens on the inside of turns. Running Water

There are 5 ways that man can cause erosion: Forestry – all vegetation of removed, in addition to without roots, the soil will erode away. Strip Mining – removing rock cover to get to the resources below, which causes the loose sediments to erode away. Construction – the clearing of l in addition to to build buildings/houses also causes all loose soil to erode away. Improper Farming – not plowing the l in addition to at right angles to slopes causes soil to erode away. Salting Highways – the salt is washed off the road to the sides, where it prevents vegetative growth along the sides.

Deposition – the process where sediments are released/dropped by their agent of erosion. Most deposition happens in st in addition to ing/still bodies of water (oceans/lakes). Deposition is caused by the slowing down (loss of kinetic energy) of the agent of erosion. There are 3 factors that influence the rate of sediment deposition: Sediment size – Sediment shape – Sediment density – Graded Bedding/Vertical Sorting – a situation where larger particles settle on the bottom in addition to smaller particles settle towards the top. This happens naturally when a fast moving river/stream meets a large st in addition to ing body of water. This happens because the velocity of the water decreases very quickly. (A waterfall emptying into a lake) Horizontal Sorting – a situation where moving water enters a larger, still body of water slowly, in addition to causes the larger particles to be deposited closer to the shoreline. Particle size decreases as you move away from the shore.

Garrison, Kelly Grunion Gazette Features Editor www.phwiki.com

Delta – a fan shaped deposit that as long as ms at the mouth of a river/stream when it enters a larger body of water. This is seen under the water. The particles are horizontally sorted. Alluvial Fan – a fan shaped deposit of sediments that as long as ms when a stream/river flows out of a mountain on to flat, dry plains. These are not under water in addition to are very visible. This only happens on the l in addition to . You can call it a “l in addition to delta”. Cross-Bedding – a situation where layers of sediments are deposited at angles to one another as a result of a change of direction of the erosional agent. These are usually found in s in addition to dunes, deltas, in addition to alluvial fans.

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