Weathering in addition to Erosion Weathering Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Frost Wedging (in soil)

Weathering in addition to Erosion Weathering Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Frost Wedging (in soil) www.phwiki.com

Weathering in addition to Erosion Weathering Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Frost Wedging (in soil)

Gran, Dana, Features Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Weathering in addition to Erosion Weathering – processes at or near Earth’s surface that cause rocks in addition to minerals to break down Erosion – process of removing Earth materials from their original sites through weathering in addition to transport Weathering Mechanical Weathering – processes that break a rock or mineral into smaller pieces without altering its composition Chemical Weathering – processes that change the chemical composition of rocks in addition to minerals Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering These are actions or things that break down Earth materials frost wedging thermal expansion in addition to contraction mechanical exfoliation abrasion by wind, water or gravity plant growth

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Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Frost Wedging – cracking of rock mass by the expansion of water as it freezes in crevices in addition to cracks http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ozsvath/images/frost%20wedging.jpg Frost Wedging (in soil) Ice crystals Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Thermal expansion in addition to contraction – repeated heating in addition to cooling of materials cause rigid substances to crack in addition to separate http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/d/dc/250px-Weathering-freeze-thaw-action-icel in addition to .jpg

Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Exfoliation – As underlying rock layers are exposed, there is less pressure on them in addition to they exp in addition to . This causes the rigid layers to crack in addition to sections to slide off (similar to peeling of outer skin layers after a sunburn). The exp in addition to ing layers often as long as m a dome. Dome Exfoliation Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Abrasion – Moving sediments or rock sections can break off pieces from a rock surface they strike. The sediments can be moved by wind or water in addition to the large rock sections by gravity.

Wind Abrasion http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/images/lithosphere/eolian/rock-wind-abrasion-p0772932441-NRCS.jpg Wind in addition to Water Abrasion http://www.gsi.ie/Education/European+L in addition to scapes/United+Kingdom.htm Photo Ref: P211442, “IPR/52-34CW BGS©NERC Processes in addition to Agents of Mechanical Weathering Plant Growth – As plants such as trees send out root systems, the fine roots find their way into cracks in the rocks. As the roots increase in size, they as long as ce the rock sections apart, increasing the separation in addition to weathering.

Plant Wedging Plant Wedging Processes of Chemical Weathering dissolving (dissolution) oxidation hydrolysis

Processes of Chemical Weathering Dissolving (dissolution) Water, often containing acid from dissolved carbon dioxide, will dissolve minerals from a rock body leaving cavities in the rock. These cavities may generate sinkholes or cave features such as stalactites in addition to stalagmites. Limestone cave feature result of dissolution Processes of Chemical Weathering Oxidation Minerals may combine with oxygen to as long as m new minerals that are not as hard. For example, the iron-containing mineral pyrite as long as ms a rusty-colored mineral called limonite.

Pyrite Oxidation http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/geology/images/pyrite-sm.jpg http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/965/75014124.JPG Pyrite Limonite Processes of Chemical Weathering Hydrolysis Minerals may chemically combine with water to as long as m new minerals. Again these are generally not as hard as the original material. Feldspar Hydrolysis http://www.mii.org/Minerals/Minpics1/Plagioclase%20feldspar.jpg http://www.uwm.edu/Course/422-100/Mineral-Rocks/kaolinite1.jpg Feldspar Kaolinite (clay)

Factors in Chemical Weathering Climate – wet in addition to warm maximizes chemical reactions Plants in addition to animals – living organisms secrete substances that react with rock Time – longer contact means greater change Mineral composition – some minerals are more susceptible to change than others Weathering in addition to Erosion Weathering produces regolith (“rock blanket”) which is composed of small rock in addition to mineral fragments. When organic matter is mixed into this material it is called soil. Erosion Transport Agents or Forces Water rain streams in addition to rivers ocean dynamics ice in glaciers Wind Gravity

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Streams Flowing water will lift in addition to carry small sediments such as silt in addition to s in addition to . Stream Erosion in addition to Deposition Where water moves more swiftly there will be more erosion. Where the water slows down, sediments will be deposited. Ocean Dynamics Tidal action in addition to waves carry away weathered materials. http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/1000/50195183.JPG http://edge.tamu.edu/waves2001/PC-tour/erosion-files/image002.jpg

Glaciers Glaciers are large ice fields that slowly flow downhill over time. http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/sharemed/targets/images/pho/t628/T628797A.jpg Glaciers Glacial ice drags rocky material that scours the surface it flows over . The glacier deposits debris as it melts. http://www.geology.um.maine.edu/user/Leigh-Stearns/teaching/kelley-isl in addition to .jpg Wind Transport of Sediments Wind will carry fine, dry sediments over long distances.

Weathering Tutorial This tutorial requires Flash but is a nice review of mechanical in addition to chemical weathering with some animations. http://www.as.uky.edu/academics/departments-programs/EarthEnvironmentalSciences/EarthEnvironmentalSciences/Educational%20Materials/Documents/elearning/module07swf.swf

Gran, Dana Features Editor

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