Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry The Periodic Table Glenn Seaborg (1912-1999)
Smith, Leo, Features Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Welcome to the World of Chemistry Honors: Ch. 1 in addition to 5 Regular: Ch. 1 in addition to 3 ICP: Ch. 1 SAVE PAPER AND INK!!! When you print out the notes on PowerPoint, print “H in addition to outs” instead of “Slides” in the print setup. Also, turn off the backgrounds (Tools>Options>Print>UNcheck “Background Printing”)! The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL — – pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Sodium Bromine Aluminum The Language of Chemistry The elements, their names, in addition to symbols are given on the PERIODIC TABLE How many elements are there 117 elements have been identified 82 elements occur naturally on Earth Examples: gold, aluminum, lead, oxygen, carbon 35 elements have been created by scientists Examples: technetium, americium, seaborgium
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The Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 – 1907) Glenn Seaborg (1912-1999) Discovered 8 new elements. Only living person as long as whom an element was named. Branches of Chemistry Many major areas of study as long as specialization Several career opportunities Also used in many other jobs
1. Organic Chemistry Organic is the study of matter that contains carbon Organic chemists study the structure, function, synthesis, in addition to identity of carbon compounds Useful in petroleum industry, pharmaceuticals, polymers 2. Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic is the study of matter that does NOT contain carbon Inorganic chemists study the structure, function, synthesis, in addition to identity of non-carbon compounds Polymers, Metallurgy 3. Biochemistry Biochemistry is the study of chemistry in living things Cross between biology in addition to chemistry Pharmaceuticals in addition to genetics
4. Physical Chemistry Physical chemistry is the physics of chemistry the as long as ces of matter Much of p-chem is computational Develop theoretical ideas as long as new compounds HONK if you passed p-chem 5. Analytical Chemistry Analytical chemistry is the study of high precision measurement Find composition in addition to identity of chemicals Forensics, quality control, medical tests Types of Observations in addition to Measurements We make QUALITATIVE observations of reactions changes in color in addition to physical state. We also make QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS, which involve numbers. Use SI units based on the metric system
SI measurement Le Système international d’unités The only countries that have not officially adopted SI are Liberia (in western Africa) in addition to Myanmar (a.k.a. Burma, in SE Asia), but now these are reportedly using metric regularly Metrication is a process that does not happen all at once, but is rather a process that happens over time. Among countries with non-metric usage, the U.S. is the only country significantly holding out. The U.S. officially adopted SI in 1866. In as long as mation from U.S. Metric Association Chemistry In Action On 9/23/99, $125,000,000 Mars Climate Orbiter entered Mars atmosphere 100 km lower than planned in addition to was destroyed by heat. 1 lb = 1 N 1 lb = 4.45 N This is going to be the cautionary tale that will be embedded into introduction to the metric system in elementary school, high school, in addition to college science courses till the end of time. St in addition to ards of Measurement When we measure, we use a measuring tool to compare some dimension of an object to a st in addition to ard. For example, at one time the st in addition to ard as long as length was the kings foot. What are some problems with this st in addition to ard
What is Scientific Notation Scientific notation is a way of expressing really big numbers or really small numbers. For very large in addition to very small numbers, scientific notation is more concise. Scientific notation consists of two parts: A number between 1 in addition to 10 A power of 10 N x 10x To change st in addition to ard as long as m to scientific notation Place the decimal point so that there is one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal point. Count the number of decimal places the decimal point has moved from the original number. This will be the exponent on the 10. If the original number was less than 1, then the exponent is negative. If the original number was greater than 1, then the exponent is positive.
Examples Given: 289,800,000 Use: 2.898 (moved 8 places) Answer: 2.898 x 108 Given: 0.000567 Use: 5.67 (moved 4 places) Answer: 5.67 x 10-4 To change scientific notation to st in addition to ard as long as m Simply move the decimal point to the right as long as positive exponent 10. Move the decimal point to the left as long as negative exponent 10. (Use zeros to fill in places.) Example Given: 5.093 x 106 Answer: 5,093,000 (moved 6 places to the right) Given: 1.976 x 10-4 Answer: 0.0001976 (moved 4 places to the left)
Learning Check Express these numbers in Scientific Notation: 405789 0.003872 3000000000 2 0.478260 Stating a Measurement In every measurement there is a Number followed by a Unit from a measuring device The number should also be as precise as the measurement! UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Use SI units based on the metric system Length Mass Volume Time Temperature Meter, m Kilogram, kg Seconds, s Celsius degrees, C kelvins, K Liter, L
Mass vs. Weight Mass: Amount of Matter (grams, measured with a BALANCE) Weight: Force exerted by the mass, only present with gravity (pounds, measured with a SCALE) Can you hear me now Some Tools as long as Measurement Which tool(s) would you use to measure: A. temperature B. volume C. time D. weight Learning Check Match L) length M) mass V) volume – A. A bag of tomatoes is 4.6 kg. – B. A person is 2.0 m tall. – C. A medication contains 0.50 g Aspirin. – D. A bottle contains 1.5 L of water. M L M V
Learning Check What are some U.S. units that are used to measure each of the following A. length B. volume C. weight D. temperature Metric Prefixes Kilo- means 1000 of that unit 1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meters (m) Centi- means 1/100 of that unit 1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm) 1 dollar = 100 cents Milli- means 1/1000 of that unit 1 Liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL) Metric Prefixes
Learning Check A group of students collected 125 empty aluminum cans to take to the recycling center. If 21 cans make 1.0 pound of aluminum, how many liters of aluminum (D=2.70 g/cm3) are obtained from the cans 1) 1.0 L 2) 2.0 L 3) 4.0 L Scientific Method State the problem clearly. Gather in as long as mation. Form a –. Test the hypothesis. Evaluate the data to as long as m a conclusion. If the conclusion is valid, then it becomes a theory. If the theory is found to be true over along period of time (usually 20+ years) with no counter examples, it may be considered a law. 6. Share the results.
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