What each of the human chromosomes look like In other words Sex determination with karyotype Normal human male
Scarfo, Rosemary, Executive Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 11 &14 Human Genetics in addition to Meiosis The study of inheritance patterns in humans Oculocutaneous albinism What each of the human chromosomes look like Karyotype: A photomicrograph of chromosomes arranged according to a st in addition to ard classification
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In other words Chromosomes are digitally arranged so that they are matched with their homologue or partner chromosome. Homologue chromosomes are the same size, shape, in addition to carry the same genes, in addition to one is inherited from each parent. They are numbered according to size. Sex determination with karyotype This karyotype has 23 exact pairs, which means the person is female. Note that 23 chromosomes are both X. Normal human male Note that 23 chromosomes are X in addition to Y.
Is this person female or male Trisomy 21 Abnormality shown in karyotype Note that there are three copies of 21 chromosome. This person has Down Syndrome. Photos of Down Syndrome patients from the National Down Syndrome Society
Correlation between mothers age in addition to Trisomy 21 incidence Monosomy X Abnormality shown in karyotype Note this person only has 1 copy of the X chromosome. This female has Turners syndrome. XXY Male (Extra X)
How are DNA samples obtained as long as karyotypes Amniocentesis: obtaining amniotic fluid which has cells from the fetus Chorionic villi sampling: removing cells from the chorion with fetal tissue
If there are chromosomal number abnormalities, how do they as long as m Meiosis: the process of creating sperm or egg from a diploid cell If there is a mistake when chromosomes are separating, then the resulting sperm or egg will have too many or too few chromosomes. Click on image to play video. Meiosis 1
Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate in addition to move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Oocyte or Spermatocyte This cell that can undergo meiosis originally has 6 chromosomes in addition to has replicated to 12 chromosomes in preparation as long as meiosis. Prophase I: homologous chromosomes pairing into tetrads
Metaphase I: tetrads align, along the metaphase plate Anaphase I: homologous chromosomes separate from the metaphase plate If chromosomes do not properly separate, this is called nondisjunction. Nondisjunction leads to trisomy in addition to monosomy disorders. Telophase I: membranes as long as m around the separated homologues
Prophase II: spindle fibers bind to the sister chromatids of each chromosome Metaphase II: chromosomes align along the metaphase plate Anaphase II: sister chromatids separate to opposite poles
Telophase II: nuclear membrane as long as ms around newly separated chromatids Note that each new nucleus as long as med has ½ the amount of DNA as the original cell. These cells are haploid cells. Nondisjunction How can siblings look alike but not exactly the same if they come from the same parents
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Scarfo, Rosemary Executive Producer
Scarfo, Rosemary is from United States and they belong to KTAR-AM and they are from Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Scarfo, Rosemary deal with the subjects like Religion
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