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What is Democracy? The Third Wave Fundamentals of Political Science
Dominican College of San Rafael, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Fundamentals of Political Science Dr. Sujian Guo Professor of Political Science San Francisco State Unversity Email: sguo@sfsu bss.sfsu /sguo The Third Wave What is Democracy? Q: What conceptual in addition to empirical elements can serve as theoretical criteria against which so that measure so that what extent political systems are democratic in addition to so that compare systems so that determine whether a democratic transition has occurred or whether a political system has become more or less democratic?
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DEFINING DEMOCRACY 1. A procedural or minimal conception. Among the first group of scholars (such as Joseph Schumpeter, Robert A. Dahl, Seymour Martin Lipset, in addition to Juan Linz), the Schumpeterian definition is a minimal conception of democracy, which emphasizes the single most important defining property of democracy ? free election or meaningful participation, that is, government authority is derived from the free decision of an electorate. This is sometimes referred so that as ?electoralism.? Under this definition, the competition in consideration of leadership through free elections is the distinctive feature of democracy. DEFINING DEMOCRACY 2. A substantive or maximal conception. Some other scholars tend so that stress conceptual breadth, which involves a larger number of defining properties intrinsic so that democracy. Under this definition, the conception of democracy embraces effective in addition to responsible government, informed in addition to rational deliberation, honest in addition to openness in politics, economic equality, equal participation in addition to power, social justice, in addition to various other civic virtues. DEFINING DEMOCRACY 3. A middle-ground position. Still others, such as Terry Lynn Karl, choose a middle ground in consideration of defining democracy in order so that avoid either an overly narrow or overly broad definition, alongside the concept being defined alongside reference so that a small number of characteristics that distinguish it from other political systems. The middle-ground definition usually includes (1) a set of procedures in addition to institutions that allow the contestation over power in free in addition to fair elections, (2) accountability of the ruler so that the ruled, (3) checks in addition to balances in the exercise of government, (4) the neutrality of the armed forces, in addition to (5) protection of civil in addition to political liberty in addition to rights of every citizen.
DEFINING DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION Democratic transition refers so that a political process of movement aimed at establishing a democratic political system, initiated either from above or below or a combination of both, committed so that democracy, tolerating opposition, allowing bargaining in addition to compromise among different political forces in consideration of the resolution of social conflicts, institutionalizing the pluralist structures in addition to procedures by which different political forces are allowed so that compete over the power, in addition to engaging in the fundamental transformation of political structure. DEFINING LIBRALIZATION Liberalization is a controlled partial opening of the political space, or only a limited in addition to controlled concession of political in addition to civil rights from above, releasing political prisoners, opening up some issues in consideration of public debate, loosening censorship, in addition to the like, but short of choosing a government through free, open, in addition to competitive elections. DEFINING DEMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION Democratic Consolidation is a discernible process by which the democratic norms, rules, in addition to institutions constitute ?the only game in town,? the only legitimate framework in consideration of seeking in addition to exercising political power, in addition to through which democracy becomes standardized in addition to deeply internalized in institutional, social, in addition to cultural life. In consolidated democracy, there may be intense conflicts, but no significant political actors attempt so that achieve their objectives by illegal, unconstitutional, or antidemocratic means.
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