What is Ethology “comparative animal behavior” Primary method of study is the o

What is Ethology “comparative animal behavior” Primary method of study is the o www.phwiki.com

What is Ethology “comparative animal behavior” Primary method of study is the o

McMahon, Pat, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal What is Ethology “comparative animal behavior” Primary method of study is the observation in addition to quantification of behavior in the field in addition to lab. “Human Ethology” Acknowledges unique biological attributes of the human species, how BOTH human culture in addition to biology evolved to become inter-dependent So, how does the “human” part change the field In A Word What is the human part of ethology Culture: dependence on tools, symbols, language in addition to learning as long as survival genetic in addition to behavioral plasticity in addition to capacity as long as immediate innovation (change)-environmental regulation

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Like here are some examples beliefs about how babies should be born changes the biological experience of birth (labor duration) socialization either favoring or discouraging aggression makes it harder or easier to be aggressive expectations in addition to beliefs about food, the psychology of food, changes what we eat in addition to why affecting our health Mead said:” We don’t eat food, we eat ideas about food”; how in addition to where we sleep, in addition to what we think about a “good nights sleep” depends on our cultural beliefs What is it that actually happens when we “psyche ourselves up” or “hit that groove ” Humans make decisions What does it mean to evoke evolutionary concepts into our underst in addition to ing of humanity For the sake of the babies 50-150,000 years ago 1500cc’s Early bipedal hominines 3.5 million years ago, 390 cubic centimeters of brain to Homo sapiens sapiens Evolutionary Perspectives on Human beings Changing morphologies in addition to Changing behavior over time 130,00 800,000 32,000 400,000 150,000

3mya 2mya 1mya .5mya Today Humans Homo sapiens sapiens The Hominins Filling in the dots A day in the life of a Pleistocene, early Homo baby, 800,000 years ago. Any Relevance to the western 2009 baby Us For the sake of the babies How

Absolutement ! We are a species that invented the phenomenon of “ideas” sometimes referred to as “memes” the culturally-based, functional analog to biologically-constituted “genes”. Nonetheless, ideas operate in addition to are expressed in relationship to an ever-present, powerful, successful, paleolithic (Stone age) biology. Still, ideas (or memes) change faster than infant or maternal biology as ideas or memes are made possible by The evolution of the human brain increasing encephalization relative to body mass increasing complex problem solving abilities involving regionalized tools in addition to technologies, enhanced communication in addition to interpretive social- skills, extended, bi-parental care in the context of more enduring male-female sexual relationships, symbolic behavior in addition to belief systems MODERN HUMAN MODERN CHIMPANZEE Stanley Kubrick “2001”: The perfect visual metaphor as long as illustrating what anthropology tries to do We try to fill in the dots between fossil ancestors, connecting hominine fossils with each other through time in addition to reconstructung the relationship between morphology (brain size, anatomical characteristics . in addition to social behavior From this To that

Brain Quality in addition to Volume And the Rise of Human Culture –] Modern Human size Range ] -] Human Culture in addition to Brain Size –] Modern Human size Range ] -] Wood stone choppers, unifacial flaked toolsl Fire, shelters, systematic hunting, clothing, h in addition to axes, flake tools, migrations Language, burials,religion integrated tools, agriculture, pottery, sedantism Homo sapiens sapiens-US

The Indonesian “hobbit” .3.6 ft feet tall, 800 cc brain late Homo erectus, up through 300,000 to 15-11,0000 BP years ago overlapping modern as long as ms phyletic dwarphism isolated on ecologically attractive but competitive environment “Homo sapiens florisiensis” hunting large rats in addition to Kokomo dragon HUMMMM HOW DID WE DO THIS How Did We Manage To Af as long as d Such An Expensive Brain, Slow Developing Brain, Needy Brain, With A Relatively Larger Body Size in addition to Reduce Birth Intervals at the same time HOW Increased size of as long as aging home ranges; Shifted to enormous breadth of food types with high protein omnivory coupled with production of tools to harvest in addition to prepare; We cook, too! Food sharing in social context division of labor; Reduced mass of gut; Loss of sexual periodicity Symbolic communication; Birth to fat babies! Direct male care in addition to other alloparents (Gettler) Tools fake organs

Risks Still, the Risks: second trophoblastic invasion (eclampsia, pre eclampsia result) as emerging embryo penetrates more deeply into womb as long as increased oxygen in addition to nutrients Architecture of bipedal pelvis diminished outlet complicating labor in addition to delivery; Cultural construction of birth in addition to infant caregiving practices far from ideal On human unique nesses: Bipedal, long labor, woman attended birth; birth of fattest babies Extreme Delayed maturity; Largest neo-cortex in addition to relative to body size tissue convolutions maximize axonal-dendritic connections in addition to speed; Long child dependence, food sharing; fat test babies at birth; Increased parental investment; Concealed ovulation, loss of estrous; Post reproductive senescence Direct in addition to indirect male care Energetically costly babies, BUT short intervals between births; Symbolic (verbal in addition to non-verbal) capacity-language, self awareness, reflection, evaluation; awareness of death; Retention of breasts; Variable adult male parental investment; Technology (dependence on tools) culture Mind readers empathic, tolerant, underst in addition to ing; Reduced gut mass, efficient digestion;

Human Population Growth Last 10,000 Years And what else does culture do Answer: (Lots) “Although the biology of human behavior is universal in historic time how humans perceive what the SHOULD do or what is ahhh “cool” .is socially constructed in addition to subject to historical change.” (adopted from Sussman 1982) David Barash: The Tortoise in addition to The Hare (1987) “ There would be little if any difficulty exchanging a Cro-Magnon in addition to a modern infant, but great incongruity in making the same switch amongst adults of both cultures.”

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“Will the Real Pleistocene Family Please St in addition to Up” (after Hrdy 2008) Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness For the sake of the babies what was a day like in the life of an 800,000 year old Homo Shortened birth intervals explained by: Cooperative breeding (Hrdy 2008) Direct male care (Gettler in press) The primacy of cooperation amongst early human beings .living on the savannah Terrestriality emphasizing omnivory .opportunism! Food sharing division of labor Cooking Care of young in addition to transport (Huge) Lack of clear material record as long as substantial division of labor until recently; Predator rich environment- Loss of estrous sex as a social bonding tool Cooperation a pre-requisite Life in the savannah in addition to as long as est Relevance of Past Selective Pressures to Contemporary Behavior Meet the “EEA” Meet the neighbors!

Really, A Central Question For the Class is: What Is Human Nature (Or is it, really natures) What Aspects of Human Life Constitute a “Nature” Emotional in addition to Behavioral “tendencies” How we sleep Why we get fat Fight Select Food Laugh Give birth Satisfy Hunger Own things Want things Raise our babies (parent) Protect our babies Soothe (or not) our babies Stay healthy, trade health as long as other gains Look as long as , look good, in addition to find a mate Circumstances of having sex in addition to being sexual Communication skills (interact successfully conduct social business, appease, maintain group cohesiveness, reduce ambiguity, build unity Desire to discover Learn Explore Feel Empathize/ Control Be “Happy” (a new concept) What determines the “nature’ of human nature genetic, familial, historical, cultural, physical, economic in addition to environmental processes; “Natures” may be extremely variable, flexible in addition to diverse: sensitive to the social values, ideologies in addition to overall cultural practices of the groups within which the behavior develops; Culture plays a huge role .even that we think it important to know what our “natures” are

Infant Sleep Development Evolutionary Family Ecology size, SES, ethnicity, beliefs, psychological constellation Experimental Ecology how is sleep studied (solitary, bottle fed) infant needs/characteristics in relationship to parental emotions, responses Cultural Ecology physical setting values, ideology medical views socioeconomics Normal Infant Sleep Dis-articulated from mother’s body Breast feeding Touch Olfactory cues/ Movement cues Rhythms /”zeitgeber” Maternal-Induced arousals & regulation

McMahon, Pat Host

McMahon, Pat is from United States and they belong to God Show – KTAR-AM, The and they are from  Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and McMahon, Pat deal with the subjects like Religion

Journal Ratings by California State University, Long Beach

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