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What is Problem – Based Learning ? PBL TUTOR TRAINING
Caldwell College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, PBL TUTOR TRAINING What is Problem – Based Learning ? Session 1 of the PBL tutor training Learning Outcomes By the end of the session all participants should: be able so that explain what PBL is be able so that describe the 7-step process by which students learn PBL have experienced the different roles in carrying out PBL be able so that evaluate PBL from the teachers point of view be able so that explain how PBL could be used so that help students understand, learn in addition to remember clinical medicine / dentistry First of all ?. Consider your own experience as both student in addition to teacher ? WHICH teaching and/or learning activities produced the ?best? learning? And WHY?
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What is PBL? Problem-based learning Group of students working alongside a facilitator Students presented alongside a problem in addition to identify learning needs in consideration of themselves International method ? Mc Master, Canada, Monash, Australia, Maastricht, Netherlands Used throughout all 5 years at Barts Based on educational research Problem-Based Learning Each student group is given a ?problem? so that address Students are divided into groups of 6-8 (ideally) alongside a member of staff acting as a facilitator / tutor Students learn through team-work in addition to self-study Learning is both student-centred in addition to self-directed What does research tell us about PBL? Studies in Maastricht in addition to North America show that, relative so that traditional medical graduates, PBL graduates: ~ are better at problem-solving ~ recall marginally less specific detail in addition to have a slightly reduced body of knowledge 1990s Generated move towards ?hybrid? curriculum More positive outcomes see Albanese in Swanwick T (ed) (2010) Understanding Medical Education
Principles behind PBL Reactivates old knowledge Integrates subjects around people in addition to their problems Emphasis on learning in consideration of professional practice Motivates students (fosters curiosity – gives ownership) Encourages active learning Encourages thinking, rather than learning by rote Topics are revisited at deeper / higher levels of complexity in addition to understanding Encourages students so that form in addition to reject hypotheses Develops thinking skills appropriate so that clinical reasoning Helps so that develop generic skills – e.g. communication, group work, leadership Types of ?Problems? a case-history a real or simulated patient experimental data a photograph a film extract a newspaper article an article from a scientific journal a pattern of inheritance The Barts ?Seven Step? PBL Model 1. Clarify unfamiliar terms/words (if possible). 2. Identify the issues arising from the scenario. 3. Expand upon the issues (brainstorming). 4. Organise the material from Step 3 into a coherent framework, offering tentative solutions so that any problems (by structuring, showing relationships, identifying gaps, etc.). 5. Devise learning questions (objectives) so that be researched. 6. a) Collect information (before the next session); b) assemble the information. 7. Contribute so that in addition to organise a collective understanding of the issues (in the second PBL tutorial).
Overview of This Unit Verbal Strategies of Supportiveness in addition to Defensiveness Why do we Misunderstand? Overview of This Unit Why Argue About Pointless Matters? Why do we Misunderstand? Factual v. Verbal Disputes Factual Dispute Examples Verbal Disputes Statements that Involve Verbal Disputes Analytic Statements, Tautologies, in addition to Definitions Analytic Statements, Tautologies, in addition to Definitions Standard in consideration of Verbal Disputes Contradictions, Paradoxes, in addition to Oxymorons Contradictions in addition to Oxymorons Paradoxes Paradoxes Attitude Axioms Metaphysical Statements Some Examples: Verbal or Factual? Overview of This Unit Why do we Misunderstand? We forget that: We forget that: We forget that: Take a Break! We will resume in 10 minutes
Roles within PBL All PBL participants have a ROLE so that play, either as: SCRIBE CHAIR GROUP MEMBER FACILITATOR / TUTOR For each PBL scenario, students elect their own Scribe in addition to Chair: these positions rotate around the group in consideration of the duration of the module Role of Scribe To record points raised by the group during discussion in Steps 1~5 To help the group so that order or link their points To participate as far as possible in the group discussion In practice the role of the scribe is key as a good scribe will be organising the ideas in addition to suggestions as the discussion is progressing PBL1 2009 mc ~ 10 Role of Chair To lead the group through the 7 steps To encourage participation of all members of the group To maintain good group dynamics To keep the group so that time To ensure the group adheres so that the task in hand To check the Scribe accurately records the points raised in the discussion, in addition to is keeping up (Steps 1~5)
Role of Group Member To follow the 7 steps in sequence To actively participate in discussions To listen actively so that each others? contributions To ask ?open? questions To independently research all the learning objectives/questions To share information alongside each other Role of Facilitator / Tutor To encourage ?deep? understanding To ask ?open? questions To encourage participation by all members of the group To maintain good group dynamics To keep the group so that time, in addition to prevent side-tracking To advise the group on what is NOT relevant To act as a go-between in consideration of staff in addition to students To evaluate group performance To support the role of the Chair in Step 7 (report-back step) What Happens During Learning via PBL? Students: acquire in addition to process knowledge in an active way learn so that work systematically learn how so that chair a meeting feel they have so that do the work become good at explaining become good at listening become good at negotiating develop inter-personal skills
Limitations of PBL Organisation of knowledge may be poor ~ Study Guides help deal alongside this Loss in consideration of student of being enthused by ?expert? teacher / role-model Loss of ?buzz? in consideration of teacher in imparting knowledge Time in addition to resourcing issues Facilitator (tutor) competence can make or break success Advantages of (Successful) PBL Students: direct their own learning learn at their own pace learn in context develop inter-personal skills learn selectively are motivated in addition to enjoy their learning integrate their knowledge learn ?how so that learn? How many of these features did we recognise earlier? References Albanese M.A. (2007) Problem-Based Learning Edinburgh: Association in consideration of the Study of Medical Education Albanese M. (2000) Problem-based Learning: why curricula are likely so that show little effect on knowledge in addition to clinical skills. Med. Educ. 34: 729-738. Albanese, M. (2010) Problem-Based Learning. In Swanwick T (ed) Understanding Medical Education Wiley-Blackwell, Edinburgh: Association in consideration of the Study of Medical Education Davis M. & Harden R. (1999) Problem-based learning: a practical guide. Medical Teacher 21 (2), p130-140. AMEE Guide 15. Feather A. & Fry H. (1999) Key Aspects of Teaching in addition to Learning in Medicine in addition to Dentistry. In: Fry, Ketteridge & Marshall (eds) A Handbook in consideration of Teaching in addition to Learning in Higher Education, chapter 24; Kogan Page. Norman G.R. & Schmidt H.G. (2000) Effectiveness of PBL curricula: theory, practice in addition to paper darts Med. Educ. 34: 721-728. Wood D.F. (2003) ABC of Teaching in addition to Learning: Problem-Based Learning Br. Med. J. 326: 328-330. hss.coventry /pb : UK Problem-Based Learning website hosted by Coventry University in addition to supported by the Learning in addition to Teaching Support Network (LTSN) Generic Centre.
Callari, Annette Host
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