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What is psycholinguistics? This talk Psycholinguistics Or what I did in my MSc
Eastern Illinois University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Psycholinguistics Or what I did in my MSc Natasha Dare This talk What is psycholinguistics? The origins of language Some of the major areas of research Famous experiments Terminology State of the art Particularly what is being done at Edinburgh When language goes wrong Not controversial What is psycholinguistics? Psychological processing of language Part of cognitive science Input from neuroscience, informatics in addition to linguistics Why is this interesting/important? ?No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main.? John Donne, Meditation XVII
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Origins of language – Child language Infants very quickly learn about language 3-day old neonates prefer the sound of their mother?s voice (DeCasper & Fifer, 1980) 4-day old neonates prefer listening so that their parents? language (Mehler & Dupoux, 1994) 1-month old babies can distinguish between speech sounds (Eimas, Miller, & Jusczyk, 1987) 6 weeks: cooing 6-9 months: babbling 12 months: initial word use 18 months: vocabulary explosion of 40 new words per week 24 months: short sentences 36 months: 90% intelligible Origins of language – Animal communication Many animals have complex communication systems Vervet monkeys: leopard vs snake vs eagle Chaffinches: combined territorial in addition to mating calls ? an initial trill so that deter males, in addition to a final flourish so that attract females But is this true language? Animal communication is holistic Human language is compositional Can see origins of human language in animals e.g. teeth baring ritual = threat -> symbolic acts courtship gift = attention so that third entity -> reference ?It is nothing other than words which has made us human? Pavlov How did human language develop? Robotic agents so that simulate evolution, especially emergence of regularities 5 vowels most common (Latin) Maximal acoustic distance De Boer (1997) – regularities emerge spontaneously after 3,000 games Pidgins -> creoles Pidgins are formed when communities are deliberately mixed e.g. Ruso-Norsk Creoles develop from pidgins but have full syntax in addition to native speakers Tok Pisin: sapos = if, bilong = possessive i e a o u front back high low
The problem dvs lexicon Bilingualism Spoken word comprehension Written word comprehension Comprehension Production Spoken word production Written word production Dialogue /Discourse Some linguistics terms Semantics Meaning Syntax Specialised term in consideration of grammar ? word order Phonetics Sounds of language e.g. thin = [qIn] Phonology Language-specific phonetics e.g. rhotic [r] in party in USA Morphology Words in addition to word formations Sometimes change the underlying meaning (re-) Sometimes don?t (-s) Pragmatics Language use Auditory word recognition What are the sound representations used so that access the lexicon (mental dictionary)? Very difficult task We understand 20 phonemes per second We can recognise words in context 200 ms after onset (Marslen-Wilson, 1984) Miller in addition to Jusczyk (1989): invariance (phonemes sound different in different contexts) in addition to segmentation (speech slurs words together) Assimilation of sound properties from other words Co-articulation of words
Trademark Dilution Intro so that IP – Prof Merges 3.30.09 Trademark Dilution CatDog Nabisco 5 elements of TM Dilution Distinctiveness Famous marks that are not distinctive Arguments in consideration of distinctiveness Nabisco?s arguments Product proximity (2) Definitions 43(c)(2)(B) Tarnishment (C) For purposes of paragraph (1), “dilution by tarnishment” is association arising from the similarity between a mark or trade name in addition to a famous mark that harms the reputation of the famous mark. 43(c): Limiting Factors (4) Burden of proof Parody ? p. 10 TM Infirngement Dilution/Parody ? p. 17 ?[T]he Second Circuit in addition to its district courts have held on numerous occasions that in the case of parody, ?the use of famous marks in parodies causes no loss of distinctiveness, since the success of the use depends upon the continued association alongside the plaintiff.? ?This Court finds that no reasonable trier of fact could conclude that Plaintiff’s mark is diluted by blurring in this case, in addition to summary judgment is appropriate. Accordingly, Defendants’ motion in consideration of summary judgment will be granted in consideration of dilution by blurring.? Tarnishment
Auditory word recognition cont. Two cues: uniqueness point in addition to context /t/ /tr/ /tre/ /tres/ /tresp/ /trespass/ uniqueness point Cohort model (Marslen-Wilson, 1989) Bottom-up: Access a cohort of possible words, select one, integrate its properties into current task TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) Interactive: Context (top-down) in addition to acoustic signal (bottom-up) both cause one candidate so that be selected Visual word recognition How do we know if a letter string is a lexical item? Two levels of checks: phonetic constraints on impossible non-words (mxbt), phonological/semantic constraints on possible non-words (kstreem/glub) What factors affect the ease of recognition? Frequency: have easier than jade Neighbourhood: mine easier than much Length: bank easier than discriminate Lexical ambiguity Homophones: knight/night Homographs: lead Meanings versus senses: bank versus film Visual word recognition cont. Connectionist modelling of orthography (letters) -> phonology (sounds) e.g. split-fovea model (Shillcock, Ellison, & Monaghan, 2001) Neurally inspired Distributed network of layers of nodes Words are represented by patterns of activation between associated words in addition to sounds Models are trained alongside word-pronunciation pairs They learn by reducing the error between the actual in addition to desired outcome Dyslexias ? developmental (necisary), surface (mint), phonological (kint), deep (sympathy -> orchestra) /a//o/ /l/ /g/ /d/ o d a l g output input
Sentence comprehension How do we parse sentences (build up syntactic representations) given the meanings of words? Phrase structure rules -> tree diagrams of sentences S -> NP VP VP -> V NP NP -> Det N S NP VP Det N V NP Det N The dog bit the man How do we access this seemingly effortless task? Ambiguity ? two or more possible structures ?enraged cow injures farmer alongside axe? Reassessment using garden-path sentences (Frazier, 1987) The horse raced past the barn fell ? reduced relative clause Sentence processing cont. Eye-tracking in addition to self-paced reading: longer time spent looking at a word = greater processing difficulty Does semantics help alongside parsing i.e. are we garden-pathed when there are strong semantic pointers so that one interpretation? Ferreira in addition to Clifton (1986): The defendant/evidence examined by the lawyer turned out so that be unreliable Although evidence disambiguates examined, eye-movements showed that semantic information did not stop people from being garden-pathed But how much do we actually parse at all? Christianson, Hollingworth, Halliwell & Ferreira (2001): While Bill hunted the deer ran into the woods Participants thought that the deer ran into the woods in addition to that Bill hunted the deer Discourse How do we maintain coherence across longer texts? Inferences Logical: Toby is a bachelor ? Toby is a man Bridging: integrating new alongside previously given information. Uses anaphor e.g. John gave Bob the book. He liked it very much ? who do it in addition to he refer to? Elaborative: extending what is in the text so that world knowledge Tend so that only remember gist/important points e.g. passages alongside personal significance ?One night there flew over the city a little Swallow. His friends had gone away so that Egypt six weeks before, but he had stayed behind, in consideration of he was in love alongside the most beautiful Reed. He had met her early in the spring as he was flying down the river after a big yellow moth, in addition to had been so attracted by her slender waist that he had stopped so that talk so that her. “Shall I love you?” said the Swallow, who liked so that come so that the point at once, in addition to the Reed made him a low bow. So he flew round in addition to round her, touching the water alongside his wings, in addition to making silver ripples. This was his courtship, in addition to it lasted all through the summer.? Oscar Wilde, ?The Happy Prince?
Language production 3 parts: conceptualisation, formulation, articulation Pre-verbal message Concept -> linguistic form Articulatory planning Motor execution Although we are very good at this (1/1000 words is an error), errors are very revealing Spoonerisms: exchange of initial consonants ?The Lord is a shoving leopard so that his flock? ?I?d rather have a bottle in front of me than a frontal lobotomy? Freudian slips ?A Freudian slip is when you say one thing but mean your mother? Language production cont. Tip of the tongue states Temporary inability so that retrieve word despite ?feeling of knowing? Can retrieve partial information e.g. gender, initial phoneme, number of syllables Blockers/pop-ups To formally renounce the throne begins alongside a, like abduct Suggests that there is a separation between syntax/semantics (lemma) in addition to morphology/ phonology (lexeme) Levelt (1992) Dell (1986) The lexicon How do we know what words mean? Different methods proposed Defining attributes (ISA links) animal superordinate bird fish canary robin salmon subordinate Exemplars/typicality effects Concepts partly based on perception e.g. brown, sticky But not the whole story e.g. the, him breathes/skin/skeleton gills/swims/fins wings/flies/feathers
The lexicon cont. Semantically similar words are interchangeable in sentences The child slept on the bed The dog walked on the carpet Semantic networks (e.g., Burgess & Lund?s HAL) Meanings come from other words (like a dictionary) Distances between words in network show relatedness, alongside 140,000 dimensional space kitten lion tooth oyster car eye face foot leg Dialogue Two or more people ? turn-taking, feedback Difficult so that study as fewer paradigms, noisier data, harder so that control Commonly use tasks or games so that elicit controlled language Audience design: do speakers tailor their utterances so that the listeners? Common ground: do listeners use information known only so that themselves? Perspective-taking: do speakers in addition to listeners take each other into account? Schober in addition to Clark (1989) tangram matching task Matchers 99% accurate, overhearers 78% Dialogue cont. Alignment (Pickering & Garrod, 2004) Linguistics representations used by interlocutors become aligned at multiple levels via priming Lexical: use the same referring expressions Syntactic: ?At what time do you close?? ?At 9? Accent in addition to speech rate Alignment permeates throughout levels All happens automatically Prosody, disfluency What information do they give the listener? When Roger leaves the house is dark/it?s dark Kjelgaard in addition to Speer (1999): when syntactic in addition to prosodic cues matched, listeners? comprehension was facilitated Does it follow that they are produced intentionally by the speaker?
Bilingualism Do we have separate language systems in consideration of each language? One system ? semantic priming produces facilitation between languages Two systems ? aphasia can affect one language only Does age/proficiency explain these contradictions? Problem: no standard, widely-used proficiency test Hard so that generalise across results Country/community/family/colleagues all have effects Most likely is one semantic store, two lexicons semantics L1 L2 Final facts 6,912 known living languages in the world 896,190 words in English (correct as of yesterday) Mandarin has 1,075,000,000 speakers Most popular word is ?ok? ?When ideas fail, words come in very handy? Goethe
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