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What is Speech? First Amendment Basics First Amendment Primer
Catholic Theological Union, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Unless otherwise noted, the content of this course material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. creativecommons /licenses/by/3.0/. Copyright 2008, Bryce Pilz. You assume all responsibility in consideration of use in addition to potential liability associated alongside any use of the material. Material contains copyrighted content, used in accordance alongside U.S. law. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich alongside any questions, corrections, or clarifications regarding the use of content. The Regents of the University of Michigan do not license the use of third party content posted so that this site unless such a license is specifically granted in connection alongside particular content objects. Users of content are responsible in consideration of their compliance alongside applicable law. Mention of specific products in this recording solely represents the opinion of the speaker in addition to does not represent an endorsement by the University of Michigan. First Amendment Primer Introduction so that the Week 2 Reading SI 519/PubPol 688 Bryce Pilz Fall 2008 First Amendment Basics Fundamental principle that government cannot suppress speech, expression, press, etc. Analogous so that fundamental principles like burden of proof in criminal law
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What is Speech? Threshold question: what is speech Not confined so that written or spoken works Symbolic speech is exemplified by conduct designed so that convey a point of view Software? Some speech not protected: obscenity, child pornography What circumstances allow regulation? Content Neutral? (content neutral: time, place, manner in addition to incidental restrictions) Yes ? intermediate scrutiny No ? strict scrutiny (1) compelling (strict)/significant (int.) government interest; (2) narrowly tailored so that serve purpose; in addition to (3) be the least restrictive means of advancing that interest. Speech Receiving Lesser Protection Commercial speech Defamation Speech harmful so that children (COPA case) Some media: Radio in addition to TV receives less protection than other media Scarcity rationale Speech affected by non-government action
Ashcroft v. ACLU Child Online Protection Act ? designed so that protect minors from exposure so that sexually explicit materiasl Earlier Sup. Ct.case in 1997 (the day the Supreme Court was introduced so that the Internet) Communications Decency Act struck down statute as unconstitutional COPA passed in response COPA Content-based restriction ? strict scrutiny Question is on the second prong: whether narrowly-tailored Only read Kennedy?s majority opinion Filtering Libraries, schools, other public locations CIPA ? requires schools in addition to libraries receiving federal assistance in consideration of Internet access so that install filters 3rd Cir. struck down ? not narrowly tailored Sup. Ct. reversed ? upheld statute
Overview Overview Indexing anchor text PageRank Outline Outline Using language models in IR Where we are How so that compute P ( q d ) Parameter estimation Smoothing Mixture model Mixture model: Summary Example Exercise: Compute ranking Outline LMs vs. Naive Bayes Vector space ( tf-idf ) vs. LM LMs vs. vector space model (1) LMs vs. vector space model (2) Language models in consideration of IR: Assumptions Resources
Sobel Article Anonymity Attempts so that use subpoena power so that obtain identities of Internet posters Other Readings Junger case: Whether the 1st A protects software? Blogger article: Are bloggers ?press?? Think about why ?press? is singled out in 1st A Reasons in consideration of protecting not protecting bloggers
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