What is the Higgs Everything is made of Who ordered that Relativity We need a new as long as ce!
Tallman, Andrew, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal What is the Higgs Prof Nick Evans University of Southampton Electrons are responsible as long as most of the properties of matter Everything is made of Who ordered that The trouble started in 1936 when Andersson in addition to Nedermeyer saw tracks in a bubble chamber due to cosmic rays of an electron but with 200 times more mass To this day the muon interacts exactly like an electron only differing in its mass . Whys that trouble
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Relativity E = m c 2 Einstein taught us that mass is a reflection of the energy store din a particle Energy is all about interactions though as long as example a c in addition to le emits heat/light as excited electrons move to orbits closer to the nucleus of their atom We need a new as long as ce! So if the muon in addition to electron masses are different there must be a new interaction that distinguishes the two That as long as ce needs to act everywhere in space evenly so that the particles masses are the same throughout space . The Higgs Boson In the St in addition to ard Model the origin of mass is addressed using a mechanism named after the British physicist Peter Higgs. This predicts a spinless particle: Higgs boson According to Higgs, space is filled with a new type of field analagous to magnetic or electric fields The electron in addition to muon couple with different strengths in addition to so get different masses
The Search as long as the Higgs To find the higgs we must excite the vacuum produce a higgs particle we collide electrons, protons etc so there is 100 times nuclear energy density in some region . The Large Hadron Collider in Switzerl in addition to switched on in late 2009 The ring is 27km round in addition to on average 100m underground CERN – Geneva Probing the structure of matter LHC began science in 2009 The Large Hadron Collider collides the nuclei of atoms with 10 times higher energy than has previously been achieved (14 TeV) 1232, 35 ton, superconducting dipole magnets accelerate ions in addition to focus them into bunches as long as collision 36,000 tons of coolant below 2K!
Proton-Proton collisions (hydrogen atom nuclei) 100 billion protons per bunch 20 collisions per crossing 1 crossing every 25ns 600 million collisions per second 14 TeV centre of mass energy To store all collision data would involve storing 10 Petabytes of data a year ie a 20km high stack of CDs more than can be made Detectors at collision sites: Atlas CMS LHC-b Alice Track particles Measure energy Measure momentum Higgs Production H tt H bb H WW llnn H ZZ() 4l
Exclusion mass range: 110-122.5, 127 600 GeV 5.1 s excess at 125 GeV higgs -> gg higgs -> ZZ 5 s excess at 126 GeV Other decay channels are low stats the tau channel signal is missing The Higgs Discovered As of 2013 we have a very clear experimental signal as long as the st in addition to ard model higgs boson nothing else has yet shown up at LHC It is a remarkable vindication of the theoretical ideas that make up the St in addition to ard Model Questions remain though is it really the st in addition to ard model higgs or is there a more complex theory of which weve found just the first bit The theory does not explain why the electron in addition to muon couple differently to the higgs there must be a reason
Tallman, Andrew Host
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