What is Tracking? How this pertains so that our project Optical Tracking

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What is Tracking? How this pertains so that our project Optical Tracking

Bradley University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Optical Tracking How this pertains so that our project Distributed Instrument Control alongside TINI using CORBA Distributed Computer Ethernet TINI RS-232 Polaris Optical Tracker Drew in addition to I will be developing an IDL that can interface between The TINI device in addition to the network in addition to between the Polaris in addition to the TINI. What is Tracking? The process of pinpointing the location of instruments, anatomical structures, and/or landmarks in three dimensional space in addition to in relationship so that each other Synonymous alongside Localization Localization is used in consideration of registration of the surgical space so that image space, as represented by preoperative MRI in addition to CT images

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Why do we need tracking? Intraoperative Guidance Without tracking, the surgeon is required so that rely on succesive steps of needle placement, image verification, needle advancement in addition to re-imaging in addition to so on, until the target is reached This is slow, which raises the likelihood that a patient can move in addition to reduce accuracy General Concept of Tracking Almost all tracking, alongside the exception of mechanical, is done using some form of electromagnetic radiation General Concept of Tracking Markers are placed on the body of which the position is so that be determined These markers are adapted so that emit energy in response so that an activation signal (active) or reflect energy from an activable source (passive)

General Concept of Tracking A sensor detects the energy emitted or reflected by the markers The energy detection is translated so that positional information using various techniques: triangulation, time-of-flight calculation General Concept of Tracking Markers can be placed on a probe alongside known fixed length so that allow the measurement of discrete points on the surfaces of exposed, rigid anatomical structures

Statistical Package Usage Statistical Tools vs. Variable Types Example: Broker Study } Statistical Model One-Way Anova F-Test: ONE WAY ANOVA Diagnosis: Normality Diagnosis: Equal Variances Pairwise Comparison SAS Output in consideration of SNK Procedure } Contrast SAS Output in consideration of Question 1 KRUSKAL – WALLIS TEST Example: Life Insurance Amount SAS Code

Sensor Modalities in Tracking Determines position of a sensor endpoint based upon measurements of joint angles, potentiometers Example systems: Faro Arm, NeuroNavigator Mechanical Sensor Modalities in Tracking Tracks the positions of one or more actively illuminated or passively reflective markers in addition to uses geometric triangulation so that determine the locations of these markers. Example systems: NDI Optotrak, Polaris Optical Sensor Modalities in Tracking Measures electrical currents induced in receiver coils when the receiver is moved within a magnetic field generated by an emitter Example systems: Polhemous, Flock of Birds Magnetic

Sensor Modalities in Tracking Sensors receive signals which are emitted by ultrasonic emitters in addition to determine location via time-of-flight Example system: Sonic Wand Acoustic Optical Tracking: How it Works Multiple charge couple device (CCD) sensors are used so that detect the energy emitted (active) or reflected (passive) by the marker. A single point marker is energized per sensor cycle so that emit infrared energy From the patent papers of Polaris Optical Tracking: How it Works During each sensor cycle, the emitted energy focused on so that the sensor is collected It is then shifted so that the sensor processing circuitry To determine the 3D position of the marker, the marker must be detected on at least three sensor axes (to cover a minimum of three orthogonal planes) From the patent papers of Polaris

Optical Tracking: How it Works Mathematical processing using the technique of triangulation determines the 3D coordinates in addition to angular orientation i.e. 6 DOF From the patent papers of Polaris What is Triangulation? Given three rays that intersect at one point, if you know the angles of the rays from the three sources in addition to the 3D coordinates of the three sources, the distance from the point of intersection of the three rays in addition to the sources can be determined. Similar process used in GPS receivers Comparing Effectiveness: Some Sensor Characteristics Accuracy ? measure of the difference between estimated in addition to correct measurement values, where all sensor measurements are estimates Resolution ? smallest change which can be detected by the sensor Bandwidth ? measure of amount of information which can be acquired in addition to processed by the sensor per unit of time (Hz)

Comparing Effectiveness: Some Sensor Characteristics Active/passive ? mentioned previously Contact/Non-Contact ? whether or not the sensor comes into physical contact alongside the object being measured Cost Comparison of Position/ Orientation Sensing Modalites Optical Tracking: Advantages Minimally invasive compared so that fiducial approach, no need in consideration of extra surgery, extra cost Small, light weight, unobtrusive in the OR Very high resolution: .01 mm High bandwidth, though not as high as mechanical Low Cost (according so that manufacturer)

Optical Tracking: Advantages High Degree of Accuracy 0.1 so that 2.5 mm accuracy In a study reported in the paper ?Comparison of Relative Accuracy Between a Mechanical in addition to an Optical Position Tracker in consideration of Image-Guided Neurosurgery,? Rohling et al, found that optical was more accurate than mechanical in the case of NDI?s Optotrak vs. FARO Most Importantly Optical Tracking: Disadvantages ?Line of sight? requirement According so that Cleary et al, in ?Technology Improvements in consideration of Image Guided in addition to Minimally Invasive Spine Procedures,? ?the major drawback of optical systems is the requirement that a line-of-sight between the trackers in addition to the camera remain at all times. This line of sight requirement can be cumbersome in addition to difficult so that maintain in the delicate surgical environment?This may reduce the acceptance of image-guided spine surgery among physicians.? Conclusion Optical Tracking is a highly effective in addition to accurate technique in consideration of localization alongside the only disadvantage being the maintenance of ?line-of-sight? alongside the cameras

References Howe, Robert in addition to Matsuoka, Yoky, ?Robotics in consideration of Surgery,? Draft, Ann. Rev Biomed Eng. 1:211-240, 1999. Leis; Eldon, Stephen, US Patent 6,061,644 ?System in consideration of determining the spatial postion in addition to orientation of a body,? Dec 5, 1997. Simon, D.A. ?Intra-Operative Position Sensing in addition to Tracking Devices? Cleary, et al. ?Technology Improvements in consideration of Image-guided in addition to Minimally Invasive Spine Procedures,? Draft, Transactions on IT in Biomedicine, Jan 2001. References Rohling, et al. ?Comparison of Relative Accuracy Between a Mechanical in addition to an Optical Position Tracker in consideration of Image-Guided Neurosurgery? Northern Digital Product Information, ndigital

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Saxon, Mark is from United States and they belong to Host and work for Intentional Living in the AZ state United States got related to this Particular Article.

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by References Howe, Robert in addition to Matsuoka, Yoky, ?Robotics in consideration of Surgery,? Draft, Ann. Rev Biomed Eng. 1:211-240, 1999. Leis; Eldon, Stephen, US Patent 6,061,644 ?System in consideration of determining the spatial postion in addition to orientation of a body,? Dec 5, 1997. Simon, D.A. ?Intra-Operative Position Sensing in addition to Tracking Devices? Cleary, et al. ?Technology Improvements in consideration of Image-guided in addition to Minimally Invasive Spine Procedures,? Draft, Transactions on IT in Biomedicine, Jan 2001. References Rohling, et al. ?Comparison of Relative Accuracy Between a Mechanical in addition to an Optical Position Tracker in consideration of Image-Guided Neurosurgery? Northern Digital Product Information, ndigital and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.