When Atoms Meet Bonding Forces Electron electron repulsive as long as ces Nucleus nu
Rico, Fred, Interim Program Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal When Atoms Meet Bonding Forces Electron electron repulsive as long as ces Nucleus nucleus repulsive as long as ces Electron necleus attractive as long as ces Bonds Forces that hold groups of atoms together in addition to make them function as a unit. Metals in addition to Nonmetals
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Types of Chemical Bonding 1. Metal with nonmetal: electron transfer in addition to ionic bonding Three models of chemical bonding Electron transfer Ionic Types of Chemical Bonding 1. Metal with nonmetal: electron transfer in addition to ionic bonding 2. Nonmetal with nonmetal: electron sharing in addition to covalent bonding
Three models of chemical bonding Electron transfer Electron sharing Ionic Covalent Types of Chemical Bonding 1. Metal with nonmetal: electron transfer in addition to ionic bonding 2. Nonmetal with nonmetal: electron sharing in addition to covalent bonding 3. Metal with metal: electron pooling in addition to metallic bonding Three models of chemical bonding Electron transfer Electron sharing Electron pooling Ionic Covalent Metallic
9.1 The outer shell electrons of an atom Participate in chemical bonding Valence Electrons G. N. Lewis Developed the idea in 1902. Lewis Structures Nitrogen, N, is in Group 5A in addition to there as long as e has 5 valence electrons. Lewis Dot Symbols
Lewis Dot Symbols The Octet Rule Chemical compounds tend to as long as m so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has eight electrons in its highest occupied energy level. The same number of electrons as in the nearest noble gas The first exception to this is hydrogen, which follows the duet rule. The second exception is helium which does not as long as m bonds because it is already full with its two electrons Ionic Bond 1s22s1 1s22s22p5 1s2 1s22s22p6 [He] [Ne]
Lattice energy (E) increases as Q increases in addition to /or as r decreases. r F < r Cl Electrostatic (Lattice) Energy Q+ is the charge on the cation Q- is the charge on the anion r is the distance between the ions Lattice energy (E) is the energy required to completely separate one mole of a solid ionic compound into gaseous ions. A chemical bond in which two or more electrons are shared by two atoms. Lewis structure of F2 Covalent Bond Distribution of electron density of H2 H H #NAME? Electronegativities (EN) The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself Classification of Bonds Difference in EN Bond Type 0 Covalent 2 Ionic 0 < in addition to <2 Polar Covalent Cs 0.7 Cl 3.0 3.0 0.7 = 2.3 Ionic H 2.1 S 2.5 2.5 2.1 = 0.4 Polar Covalent N 3.0 N 3.0 3.0 3.0 = 0 Covalent Classification of Bonds
Draw skeletal structure of compound showing what atoms are bonded to each other. Put least electronegative element in the center. Count total number of valence e-. Add 1 as long as each negative charge. Subtract 1 as long as each positive charge. Use one pair of electrons to as long as m a bond (a single line) between each pair of atoms. Arrange the remaining electrons to satisfy an octet as long as all atoms (duet as long as H), starting from outer atoms. If a central atom does not have an octet, move in lone pairs to as long as m double or triple bonds on the central atom as needed. Rules as long as Writing Lewis Structures Step 1 N is less electronegative than F, put N in center Step 2 Count valence electrons N – 5 (2s22p3) in addition to F – 7 (2s22p5) 5 + (3 x 7) = 26 valence electrons Step 3 Draw single bonds between N in addition to F atoms. Step 4 Arrange remaining 20 electrons to complete octets Step 1 C is less electronegative than O, put C in center Step 2 Count valence electrons C – 4 (2s22p2) in addition to O – 6 (2s22p4) -2 charge 2e- 4 + (3 x 6) + 2 = 24 valence electrons Step 3 Draw single bonds between C in addition to O atoms Step 4 – Arrange remaining 18 electrons to complete octets Step 5 The central C has only 6 electrons. Form a double bond.
More than one valid Lewis structures can be written as long as a particular molecule The actual structure of the carbonate ion is an average of the three resonance structures Resonance Exceptions to the Octet Rule The Incomplete Octet BeH2 BF3 Exceptions to the Octet Rule Odd-Electron Molecules NO The Exp in addition to ed Octet (central atom with principal quantum number n > 2) SF6
Lab 1 Acknowledgment Some images, animation, in addition to material have been taken from the following sources: Chemistry, Zumdahl, Steven S.; Zumdahl, Susan A.; Houghton Mifflin Co., 6th Ed., 2003; supplements as long as the instructor General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts, Chang, Raymon; McGraw-Hill Co. Inc., 4th Ed., 2005; supplements as long as the instructor Principles of General Chemistry, Silberberg, Martin; McGraw-Hill Co. Inc., 1st Ed., 2006; supplements as long as the instructor NIST WebBook: http://webbook.nist.gov/ http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/vibrat.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caffeine http://www.wilsonhs.com/SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY/MRWILSON/Unit%204%20Chemical%2 0Bonding%20Powerpoint1.ppt
Rico, Fred Interim Program Director
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