When does a clump of cells become a person with full moral status The question

When does a clump of cells become a person with full moral status The question www.phwiki.com

When does a clump of cells become a person with full moral status The question

Siegel, Melinda, Co-Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal When does a clump of cells become a person with full moral status The question matters whether you believe in God or not . Immanuel Kant “Every human being must be treated not merely as a means to an end but as an end in itself” At what stage would you draw the line Examine this chart of development from gametes to neonate 24weeks 14days 36hrs 7days 22days 20weeks UK Law 24weeks 14days 36hrs 7days 22days Current UK legislation on the attainment of personhood is paradoxical in that it draws lines of moral status at 2 points: 14 days as long as embryo research 24 weeks as long as abortion 20weeks

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UK Public Opinion 24weeks 14days 36hrs 7days 22days In a 2008 poll, 43% of UK adults thought the first heartbeat was the start of personhood 40 weeks Reproductive Biology Assoc Inc. International Poll 2008 20weeks Roman Catholicism 24weeks 14days 36hrs 7days 22days 40 weeks 20weeks The majority Roman Catholic view, expounded by Donum Vitae 1987 in addition to rein as long as ced by Dignitas Personae 2008 is that ensoulment or personhood begins at the moment of conception A minority of Catholic theologians have argued, along the lines of St Thomas Aquinas, that ‘delayed’ ensoulment occurs when the spirit relates to as long as m ie. When the primitive streak appears Protestant Christianity There is a great diversity of view within Protestantism about the time of ensoulment. Generally speaking most believers would view the unique person being created by God within the first 2 weeks. The range of beliefs is normally either conception (often held by evangelicals or anglo-catholics), implantation – start of relationship with the mother or neurulation (spirit / as long as m as per Thomas Aquinas). 24weeks 14days 36hrs 7days 22days 20weeks

Islam 120 days quickening 40 days Maliki school says earlier 24weeks 14days 36hrs 7days 22days 40 weeks 20weeks Islamic scholars down through the centuries have consistently upheld the teaching of delayed ensoulment. The process of ensoulment reaching fruition at a point between 40 in addition to 120 days gestation Abortion after 120 days is not allowed. Some Jurists argue as long as the protection of the fertilized embryo in addition to there as long as e are against embryo research Hinduism 120 days quickening 40 days 24weeks 14days 36hrs 7days 22days 20weeks The Vedas teach that all life is sacred. However, human life is the highest level of conciousness. The divine spark, or soul enters at 120 days (Artma). Hindus also per as long as m a pre-birth ceremony at 7 months when personhood is fully achieved. Thus, although the early embryo is to be respected, it is the 120 day time point which is a key event in the acquiring of human personhood. 40weeks Judaism 24weeks 14days 36hrs 7days 22days 20weeks Rabbinic thought varies considerably on the emergence of personhood. Rabbi Judah the Patriach held that it occurred at conception. Talmudic teaching is that personhood is only obtained at birth in addition to that the baby only has equivalent status with the mother when half in in addition to half out of the womb. Other teachings hold that after 40 days the foetus has special status which precludes abortion as long as all but the most serious reasons. 120 days quickening 40 days

Buddhism 24w 14d 36h 7d 22d Generally speaking, personhood is not an issue as long as Buddhists. Consciousness comes from conception – there as long as e this is a critical stage. Genetic makeup of the individual from the blastocyst stage onward can be affected by Karmic influences. This has led some Buddhists to define the blastocyst as the key stage in personhood. Does developmental biology in as long as m this debate Whilst embryo / foetal development is a continuum, there are 5 recognized stages at which scientists have suggested personhood could potentially be defined as beginning although these are hotly contested in addition to debated. 1 Fertilization 2 Syngamy – new genome 3 Gastrulation (Individuation) 4 EEG activity 5 Birth Fertilization Contrary to popular thought, there is no ‘moment’ of fertilization. It is a process that can take up to 36 hours. Processes include capacitation of the sperm, oocyte chemoattraction, penetration of the zona pellucida by the sperm in addition to eventual zygote as long as mation. This impacts on personhood simply in that there is no definable new being or entity as long as at least a day following sexual union. This has implications as long as those who might oppose emergency contraception in cases of rape.

Syngamy Defining personhood in terms of the creation of a novel genome is also fraught with difficulty. Even though a new genetically distinct entity is as long as med at the emergence of the zygote, there is still the possibility that the zygote will as long as m multiple entities or that multiple zygotes will fuse to as long as m one. Also it is possible the zygote will as long as m a tumour rather than a viable foetus. In terms of personhood this is problematic. Early blastomeres within a blastocyst are totipotent – so in theory could as long as m multiple persons. Gastrulation By 14 days, the implanted embryo begins to exhibit differentiated cellular structures. This is probably the first point at which biological individuality occurs. Monozygotic twinning can occur up to day 12. Thus several philosophers (including Mary Warnock, Ron Green) talk about the origins of personhood in addition to theologians such as Ford in addition to Olsen, Shannon in addition to Walter talk about ‘delayed ensoulment’ as occuring around this time. EEG activity Burst of EEG activity can be detected in the developing foetus at around 20 weeks gestation. There is a persuasive argument that if cessation of electro-encephalogram activity marks the end of life, surely the instigation of EEG marks its start. This would imply that being a person is bound up with a functioning cortex. The potential as long as the brain to experience pain at this point has in as long as med the abortion debate but the ability to ‘sense’ the external environment is a key facet to personhood.

Birth If there is a critical tipping point in foetal development, it is during the process of delivery of the neonate. Abrupt changes in cardiovascular in addition to pulmonary function occur to sustain life extra-utero. There is no doubt that we talk of a new-born infant as a ‘person’ in addition to most societies have enshrined legal registration in addition to protection of babies as persons in society. But does that mean that a foetus in the womb 5 minutes be as long as e birth is any less of a person

Siegel, Melinda Bookworm - KCRW-FM Co-Producer www.phwiki.com

Siegel, Melinda Co-Producer

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