Which is the largest unit: one Celsius degree, one Kelvin degree, or one Fahrenh

Which is the largest unit: one Celsius degree, one Kelvin degree, or one Fahrenh www.phwiki.com

Which is the largest unit: one Celsius degree, one Kelvin degree, or one Fahrenh

Barr, Alistair, Finance Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Which is the largest unit: one Celsius degree, one Kelvin degree, or one Fahrenheit degree 1) one Celsius degree 2) one Kelvin degree 3) one Fahrenheit degree 4) both one Celsius degree in addition to one Kelvin degree 5) both one Fahrenheit degree in addition to one Celsius degree ConcepTest 16.1 Degrees Which is the largest unit: one Celsius degree, one Kelvin degree, or one Fahrenheit degree 1) one Celsius degree 2) one Kelvin degree 3) one Fahrenheit degree 4) both one Celsius degree in addition to one Kelvin degree 5) both one Fahrenheit degree in addition to one Celsius degree The Celsius degree in addition to the Kelvin degree are the same size. The scales only differ by an offset, not by the size of the degree unit. For Fahrenheit, there are 180 degrees between boiling in addition to freezing (212°F–32°F). For Celsius, there are 100 degrees between the same points, so the Celsius ( in addition to Kelvin) degrees must be larger. ConcepTest 16.1 Degrees It turns out that – 40°C is the same temperature as – 40°F. Is there a temperature at which the Kelvin in addition to Celsius scales agree 1) yes, at 0 °C 2) yes, at -273 °C 3) yes, at 0 K 4) no ConcepTest 16.2 Freezing Cold

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It turns out that – 40°C is the same temperature as – 40°F. Is there a temperature at which the Kelvin in addition to Celsius scales agree 1) yes, at 0 °C 2) yes, at -273 °C 3) yes, at 0 K 4) no The Celsius in addition to Kelvin scales differ only by an offset, which is 273 degrees. There as long as e, a temperature on one scale can never match the same numerical value on the other scale. The reason that such agreement is possible as long as Celsius in addition to Fahrenheit is the fact that the actual degree units have different sizes (recall the previous question). ConcepTest 16.2 Freezing Cold You may notice that if a mercury-in-glass thermometer is inserted into a hot liquid, the mercury column first drops, in addition to then later starts to rise (as you expect). How do you explain this drop 1) the mercury contracts be as long as e the glass contracts 2) the glass contracts be as long as e the mercury contracts 3) the mercury contracts be as long as e the glass exp in addition to s 4) the glass exp in addition to s be as long as e the mercury exp in addition to s 5) the mercury exp in addition to s be as long as e the glass contracts ConcepTest 16.3 Thermometers You may notice that if a mercury-in-glass thermometer is inserted into a hot liquid, the mercury column first drops, in addition to then later starts to rise (as you expect). How do you explain this drop 1) the mercury contracts be as long as e the glass contracts 2) the glass contracts be as long as e the mercury contracts 3) the mercury contracts be as long as e the glass exp in addition to s 4) the glass exp in addition to s be as long as e the mercury exp in addition to s 5) the mercury exp in addition to s be as long as e the glass contracts The hot liquid touches the glass first, so initially the glass exp in addition to s slightly. This increases the volume inside the glass, in addition to so the mercury level drops slightly. Once the mercury heats up, it begins to exp in addition to in addition to then the characteristic rise in the mercury column follows, indicating the increase in temperature that you expected to measure. ConcepTest 16.3 Thermometers Follow-up: Is it possible to have the mercury first rise in addition to later drop

ConcepTest 16.4 Glasses 1) run hot water over them both 2) put hot water in the inner one 3) run hot water over the outer one 4) run cold water over them both 5) break the glasses Two drinking glasses are stuck, one inside the other. How would you get them unstuck Running hot water only over the outer glass will allow the outer one to exp in addition to , while the inner glass remains relatively unchanged. This should loosen the outer glass in addition to free it. ConcepTest 16.4 Glasses 1) run hot water over them both 2) put hot water in the inner one 3) run hot water over the outer one 4) run cold water over them both 5) break the glasses Two drinking glasses are stuck, one inside the other. How would you get them unstuck A steel tape measure is marked such that it gives accurate length measurements at room temperature. If the tape measure is used outside on a very hot day, how will its length measurements be affected 1) measured lengths will be too small 2) measured lengths will still be accurate 3) measured lengths will be too big ConcepTest 16.5a Steel Expansion I

A steel tape measure is marked such that it gives accurate length measurements at room temperature. If the tape measure is used outside on a very hot day, how will its length measurements be affected 1) measured lengths will be too small 2) measured lengths will still be accurate 3) measured lengths will be too big The tape measure will exp in addition to , so its markings will spread out farther than the correct amount. When it is laid down next to an object of fixed length, you will read too few markings as long as that given length, so the measured length will be too small. ConcepTest 16.5a Steel Expansion I 1) gets larger 2) gets smaller 3) stays the same 4) vanishes Metals such as brass exp in addition to when heated. The thin brass plate in the movie has a circular hole in its center. When the plate is heated, what will happen to the hole ConcepTest 16.5b Steel Expansion II 1) gets larger 2) gets smaller 3) stays the same 4) vanishes Imagine drawing a circle on the plate. This circle will exp in addition to outward along with the rest of the plate. Now replace the circle with the hole, in addition to you can see that the hole will exp in addition to outward as well. Note that the material does NOT “exp in addition to inward” to fill the hole!! Metals such as brass exp in addition to when heated. The thin brass plate in the movie has a circular hole in its center. When the plate is heated, what will happen to the hole ConcepTest 16.5b Steel Expansion II

ConcepTest 16.6a Steel Ring I 1) aluminum 2) steel 3) glass 4) aluminum in addition to steel 5) all three A steel ring st in addition to s on edge with a rod of some material inside. As this system is heated, as long as which of the following rod materials will the rod eventually touch the top of the ring Aluminum is the only material that has a larger b value than the steel ring, so that means that the aluminum rod will exp in addition to more than steel ring. Thus, only in that case does the rod have a chance of reaching the top of the steel ring. ConcepTest 16.6a Steel Ring I 1) aluminum 2) steel 3) glass 4) aluminum in addition to steel 5) all three A steel ring st in addition to s on edge with a rod of some material inside. As this system is heated, as long as which of the following rod materials will the rod eventually touch the top of the ring ConcepTest 16.6b Steel Ring II 1) heat the thing up 2) cool the thing down 3) blow the thing up You want to take apart a couple of aluminum parts held together by steel screws, but the screws are stuck. What should you do

Since aluminum has a larger b value, that means aluminum exp in addition to s more than steel. Thus, by heating the part, the aluminum holes will exp in addition to faster than the steel screws in addition to the screws will come loose. ConcepTest 16.6b Steel Ring II 1) heat the thing up 2) cool the thing down 3) blow the thing up You want to take apart a couple of aluminum parts held together by steel screws, but the screws are stuck. What should you do Two objects are made of the same material, but have different masses in addition to temperatures. If the objects are brought into thermal contact, which one will have the greater temperature change 1) the one with the higher initial temperature 2) the one with the lower initial temperature 3) the one with the greater mass 4) the one with the smaller mass 5) the one with the higher specific heat ConcepTest 16.8a Thermal Contact I Two objects are made of the same material, but have different masses in addition to temperatures. If the objects are brought into thermal contact, which one will have the greater temperature change 1) the one with the higher initial temperature 2) the one with the lower initial temperature 3) the one with the greater mass 4) the one with the smaller mass 5) the one with the higher specific heat Since the objects are made of the same material, the only difference between them is their mass. Clearly, the object with less mass will change temperature more easily since not much material is there (compared to the more massive object). ConcepTest 16.8a Thermal Contact I

Two different objects receive the same amount of heat. Which of the following choices is NOT a reason why the objects may have different temperature changes 1) they have different initial temperatures 2) they have different masses 3) they have different specific heats ConcepTest 16.8b Thermal Contact II Two different objects receive the same amount of heat. Which of the following choices is NOT a reason why the objects may have different temperature changes 1) they have different initial temperatures 2) they have different masses 3) they have different specific heats Since Q = m c DT in addition to the objects received the same amount of heat, the only other factors are the masses in addition to the specific heats. While the initial temperature is certainly relevant as long as finding the final temperature, it does not have any effect on the temperature change DT. ConcepTest 16.8b Thermal Contact II ConcepTest 16.9 Two Liquids 1) the cooler one 2) the hotter one 3) both the same Two equal-mass liquids, initially at the same temperature, are heated as long as the same time over the same stove. You measure the temperatures in addition to find that one liquid has a higher temperature than the other. Which liquid has a higher specific heat

Both liquids had the same increase in internal energy, because the same heat was added. But the cooler liquid had a lower temperature change. Since Q = mcDT, if Q in addition to m are both the same in addition to DT is smaller, then c (specific heat) must be bigger. ConcepTest 16.9 Two Liquids 1) the cooler one 2) the hotter one 3) both the same Two equal-mass liquids, initially at the same temperature, are heated as long as the same time over the same stove. You measure the temperatures in addition to find that one liquid has a higher temperature than the other. Which liquid has a higher specific heat The specific heat of concrete is greater than that of soil. A baseball field (with real soil) in addition to the surrounding parking lot are warmed up during a sunny day. Which would you expect to cool off faster in the evening when the sun goes down 1) the concrete parking lot 2) the baseball field 3) both cool off equally fast ConcepTest 16.10a Night on the Field The specific heat of concrete is greater than that of soil. A baseball field (with real soil) in addition to the surrounding parking lot are warmed up during a sunny day. Which would you expect to cool off faster in the evening when the sun goes down 1) the concrete parking lot 2) the baseball field 3) both cool off equally fast The baseball field, with the lower specific heat, will change temperature more readily, so it will cool off faster. The high specific heat of concrete allows it to “retain heat” better in addition to so it will not cool off so quickly – it has a higher “thermal inertia.” ConcepTest 16.10a Night on the Field

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ConcepTest 16.10b Night on the Beach Water has a higher specific heat than s in addition to . There as long as e, on the beach at night, breezes would blow: (1) from the ocean to the beach (2) from the beach to the ocean (3) either way, makes no difference ConcepTest 16.10b Night on the Beach Daytime sun heats both the beach in addition to the water beach heats up faster warmer air above beach rises cooler air from ocean moves in underneath breeze blows ocean l in addition to cs in addition to < cwater Nighttime sun has gone to sleep beach cools down faster warmer air is now above the ocean cooler air from beach moves out to the ocean breeze blows l in addition to ocean Water has a higher specific heat than s in addition to . There as long as e, on the beach at night, breezes would blow: (1) from the ocean to the beach (2) from the beach to the ocean (3) either way, makes no difference ConcepTest 16.11 Calorimetry 1 kg of water at 100 oC is poured into a bucket that contains 4 kg of water at 0 oC. Find the equilibrium temperature (neglect the influence of the bucket). (1) 0 oC (2) 20 oC (3) 50 oC (4) 80 oC (5) 100 oC Since the cold water mass is greater, it will have a smaller temperature change! The masses of cold/hot have a ratio of 4:1, so the temperature change must have a ratio of 1:4 (cold/hot). ConcepTest 16.11 Calorimetry 1 kg of water at 100 oC is poured into a bucket that contains 4 kg of water at 0 oC. Find the equilibrium temperature (neglect the influence of the bucket). (1) 0 oC (2) 20 oC (3) 50 oC (4) 80 oC (5) 100 oC Q1 = Q2 m1cDT1 = m2cDT2 DT1 / DT2 = m2 / m1 Which has more molecules – a mole of nitrogen (N2) gas or a mole of oxygen (O2) gas 1) oxygen 2) nitrogen 3) both the same ConcepTest 17.1a Nitrogen in addition to Oxygen I Which has more molecules – a mole of nitrogen (N2) gas or a mole of oxygen (O2) gas 1) oxygen 2) nitrogen 3) both the same A mole is defined as a quantity of gas molecules equal to Avogadro’s number (6.02 1023). This value is independent of the type of gas. ConcepTest 17.1a Nitrogen in addition to Oxygen I ConcepTest 18.2 Work In the closed thermodynamic cycle shown in the P-V diagram, the work done by the gas is: 1) positive 2) zero 3) negative The gas exp in addition to s at a higher pressure in addition to compresses at a lower pressure. In general, clockwise = positive work; counter-clockwise = negative work. ConcepTest 18.3 Heat Engine The heat engine below is: 1) a reversible (Carnot) heat engine 2) an irreversible heat engine 3) a hoax 4) none of the above ConcepTest 18.3 Heat Engine The heat engine below is: 1) a reversible (Carnot) heat engine 2) an irreversible heat engine 3) a hoax 4) none of the above Carnot e = 1-TC/TH=1-270/600=0.55. But by definition e = 1-QL/QH =1 - 4000/8000=0.5, smaller than Carnot e, thus irreversible. Follow-up: What would you need to change to make it a Carnot engine

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