Who are the Indians Defining the real object of archaeological study To say tha

Who are the Indians Defining the real object of archaeological study To say tha www.phwiki.com

Who are the Indians Defining the real object of archaeological study To say tha

Reid, Monica, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Who are the Indians Defining the real object of archaeological study To say that Europeans (or Chinese!) discovered America must be an unbelievable joke to Native Americans— Their existence has had tremendous significance as long as European in addition to Euroamerican philosophical thought, politics in addition to economics — in addition to still is!

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Their existence has had tremendous significance as long as European in addition to Euroamerican philosophical thought, politics in addition to economics. But claiming the Americas as long as Spain brought almost unimaginable tragedy to the Indians. Intellectual Excitement—Ethnocentric Interpretation 16th century intellectuals were profoundly excited, in addition to their imaginations were stirred, raising a number of pressing questions 1. Who are the Indians Varied in addition to plentiful answers 2. Where did they come from Were they children of God The historic Papal Bull of Pope Paul III in 1537 in addition to the work of Antonio de Montesinos in addition to Bartolomé de las Casas, Indians were declared to be human beings, which must have been news to “the people“ Implication was that they should be missionized in addition to they were. Heavily. 1582: Pedro de Lievano Dean of the Cathedral of Guatemala ‘what causes the Indian to die in addition to diminish in number are secret judgments of God beyond the reach of men’ 1620: Brad as long as d, Colonist ‘the good h in addition to of God favored our beginnings by sweeping away great multitudes of the natives that he might make room as long as us’ 1630: Cotton Mather, Puritan Elder ‘the Book of Genesis authorizes the descendants of Adam or Noah to come inhabit where there is a vacant place without purchase or permission’ Some ideas, with damaging consequences Cotton Mather William Brad as long as d

1763, PA: ‘you will do well to try to innoculate the Indians by means of blankets as well as to try every other method that can serve to extirpate this exorable race ‘ we gave them two blankets in addition to a h in addition to kerchief out of the smallpox hospital. I hope it will have the desired effect’ 1881 Henry Price, US Commissioner of Indian Affairs “Savage in addition to civilized life cannot live in addition to prosper on the same ground. One of the two must die we are fifty millions of people, in addition to they are only one-fourth of one million. The few must yield to the many” 1885: Lyman Abott, re as long as mer: “It is sometimes said that the Indian occupied this country in addition to that we took it away from them; that the country belonged to them. This is not true. The Indians did not occupy this l in addition to . A people do not occupy a country simply because they roam over it the Indians can scarcely be said to have occupied this country more than the bisons in addition to buffalo they hunted. Three hundred thous in addition to people have no right to hold a continent in addition to keep at bay a race able to people it ” Diseases in ‘New World’ in addition to ‘Old World’ Huge depopulation impact from diseases Endemic: TB, dysentery, staph in addition to strep Epidemic: smallpox, measles, diphtheria, typus, typhoid, bubonic plague, malaria 1815-1816: Smallpox killed 4,000 out of 10,000 Comanche Early 1830s: Pawnee lost half of their population of 20,000, M in addition to an, Arikara, Hidatsa from 35,000 to under 2,000 Smallpox – an ancient ‘childhood disease’ 1700s: 10-15% deaths in Western Europe 80% of deaths under the age of 10 70% under the age of 2 Impact: 90-95% Mortality What were the effects in addition to repercussions of epidemic devastation Major shifts in social life, family life, economy, politics, religion, psychology What were the effects in addition to repercussions of epidemic devastation Major shifts in social life, family life, economy, politics, religion, psychology Many long-term traditions lost See ‘Timeline of European Disease Epidemics Among American Indians’ Images Both from Jaune Quick-to-See Smith Top: Paper Dolls as long as a Post-Columbian World with Ensembles Contributed by the U.S. Government, in the Eiteljorg Museum Bottom: Famous Names

But like it or not, as Children of God, The implication was that they should be missionized in addition to they were. Heavily. — in addition to still are! St. Labre Mission, Montana St. Joseph Indian School, South Dakota There have always been complex threads of thought regarding Indians. The early views: They were not in the Bible, there as long as e were not human, but were the spawn of Satan. They were human in addition to children of God who needed to be brought to God. They were descended from the Lost Tribes of Israel. They were destroyers of the lost race of Moundbuilders. They descendants of people who had migrated across the Bering Straits.

The Moundbuilder Myth Explorers who were used a natural scientific approach which is still reflected in the fact that Indians in addition to archaeology tend to be in natural history museums instead of history museums 2. Most were not directly on the scene or as involved Armchair explorers using a literary approach Indians became objects of natural history Thomas Jefferson cautioned Lewis in addition to Clark to “treat [the Indians] in the most friendly in addition to conciliatory manner which their own conduct will admit.” Many ethnographic objects were painstakingly gathered, described, in addition to preserved as long as their journey east. Hide clothing, woven hats, buffalo robes, calumets, feather badges, baskets, bows in addition to arrows, in addition to ornaments, like the natural history specimens, were carefully prepared to make the journey to the nation’s capitol. Jefferson transferred some of the expedition materials to the Peale museum, retaining others at his home, Monticello. At Monticello, artifacts from the Corps of Discovery were displayed in Jefferson’s “Indian Hall,” along with other objects given to or collected by Jefferson. — in addition to still are! Note that Indians are right there with the rocks in addition to extinct animals!

Indians weren’t taken out of the museum cabinet of curiosities until 1989! The National Museum of the American Indian Act (PL 101-185) was passed in 1989. NMAI opened in 2004. Be as long as e then Indian materials had been in the National Museum of Natural History. Were Indians Disappearing The view by the 1800s Whatever their origins, the dominant view is that Indians would be disappearing soon after the turn of the 20th Century Countless paintings were based on a sculpture, The End of the Trail, by James Earle Fraser, 1876 – 1953 Most Americans still have that view

Salvage Ethnography An 1889 photograph of Chief Joseph speaking to ethnologist Alice Cunningham Fletcher Francis Densmore Francis LaFlesche James Mooney Salvage Archaeology John Wesley Powell Cyrus Thomas Jesse Walter Fewkes William Henry Holmes When Indians became “objects of historic or scientific interest” American Antiquities Act of 1906 16 USC 431-433 Sec. 2. That the President of the United States is hereby authorized, in his discretion, to declare by public proclamation historic l in addition to marks, historic in addition to prehistoric structures, in addition to other objects of historic or scientific interest that are situated upon the l in addition to s owned or controlled by the Government of the United States to be national monuments, in addition to may reserve as a part thereof parcels of l in addition to , the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with proper care in addition to management of the objects to be protected: Provided, That when such objects are situated upon a tract covered by a bonafied unperfected claim or held in private ownership, the tract, or so much thereof as may be necessary as long as the proper care in addition to management of the object, may be relinquished to the Government, in addition to the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized to accept the relinquishment of such tracts in behalf of the Government of the United States. Sec. 3. That permits as long as the examination of ruins, the excavation of archaeological sites, in addition to the gathering of objects of antiquity upon the l in addition to s under their respective jurisdictions may be granted by the Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, in addition to War to institutions which the may deem properly qualified to conduct such examination, excavation, or gathering, subject to such rules in addition to regulation as they may prescribe: Provided, That the examinations, excavations, in addition to gatherings are undertaken as long as the benefit of reputable museums, universities, colleges, or other recognized scientific or educational institutions, with a view to increasing the knowledge of such objects, in addition to that the gatherings shall be made as long as permanent preservation in public museums. Approved, June 8, 1906

In his 1839 Crania Americana, anthropologist Samuel George Morton reported that the mean cranial capacity of the skulls of Whites was 87 in³ (1,425 cm³), while that of Blacks was 78 in³ (1,278 cm³). Based on the measurement of 144 skulls of Native Americans, he reported an a figure of 82 in³ (1,344 cm³). Samuel G. Morton (1799-1851) Crania Americana, 1839 Skulls in addition to Bones The Development of Craniometry Morton’s descriptions of Native Americans The American Race is marked by a brown complexion; long, black, lank hair; in addition to deficient beard. The eyes are black in addition to deep set, the brow low, the cheekbones high, the nose large in addition to aquiline, the mouth large, in addition to the lips tumid [swollen] in addition to compressed . In their mental character the Americans are averse to cultivation, in addition to slow in acquiring knowledge; restless, revengeful, in addition to fond of war, in addition to wholly destitute of maritime adventure. They are crafty, sensual, ungrateful, obstinate in addition to unfeeling, in addition to much of their affection as long as their children may be traced to purely selfish motives. They devour the most disgusting [foods] uncooked in addition to uncleaned, in addition to seem to have no idea beyond providing as long as the present moment . Their mental faculties, from infancy to old age, present a continued childhood . [Indians] are not only averse to the restraints of education, but as long as the most part are incapable of a continued process of reasoning on abstract subjects . See a simulation of Morton’s techniques as long as measuring cranial capacity at www.facinghistory.org The Skull Collecting Frenzy By order of the Surgeon General, September 1st, 1868. The officers of the medical staff are in as long as med that a craniological collection was commenced last The chief purpose had in view in as long as ming this collection is to aid in the progress will evince even greater zeal in collecting as long as their own muse ums It is chiefly desired to procure a sufficiently large series of adult crania of the principal Indian tribes to furnish accurate average measurements. That single request resulted in the collection of some 4,000 skulls. Brought to the point of destruction by starvation, war in addition to disease, Native Americans were seen as a doomed people. A collecting frenzy began, driven by the romantic notion that a vanishing culture could be saved. Dozens of museums were built to house the collections, where the remains have rested until now. US Army Medical Museum Skull Collection

Reid, Monica KKNT-AM News Director www.phwiki.com

Ales Hrdlicka Franz Boas poses as long as a model of a Kwakiutl dancer (ca. 1900). Franz Boas was noted as long as stating that it was “most unpleasant work to steal bones from graves, but what is the use, someone has to do it.” When four Eskimos died at the American Museum of Natural History in 1896, Hrdlicka directed that all four be macerated, boiled, in addition to reduced to skeletons at the College of Physicians in addition to Surgeons of Columbia University.” The remains were then sent to the museum’s collection where they could be studied. “ but what is the use, someone has to do it.” The idea of skull measurements in addition to race haven’t really gone away [Kennewick] man lacks definitive characteristics of the classic mongoloid stock to which modern Native Americans belong. The skull is dolichocranic (cranial index 73.8) rather than brachycranic, the face narrow in addition to prognathous rather than broad in addition to flat. Cheek bones recede slightly in addition to lack an inferior zygomatic projection; the lower rim of the orbit is even with the upper. Other features are a long, broad nose that projects markedly from the face in addition to high, round orbits. The m in addition to ible is v-shaped,with a pronounced, deep chin. Many of these characteristics are definitive of modern-day caucasoid peoples, while others, such as the orbits are typical of neither race. Dental characteristics fit Turner’s (1983) Sundadont pattern, indicating possible relationship to south Asian peoples. James Chatters James Chatters & Kennewick reconstruction What can be said about physical variation Stereotypic—Red-brown skin, dark brown eyes, prominent cheek bones, straight black hair, in addition to scantiness of beard—but huge variation Skin color—Very light in some tribes, as the Cheyenne, to almost black in others, as the Caddo in addition to Tarimari. In a few tribes, as the Flatheads, the skin has a distinct yellowish cast. Hair—varies dramatically in amount, texture & color Eyes—Generally dark Body shape—great variation in height, weight, physique Blood type—generally O Other features—shove-shaped incisors, Inca bones, but these are variable Size—a wide range, from 5.5 to 6.5 feet tall

So, who is an Indian Ways to define “Indianness” Population Legal Indians are from now, not just back then! We need to underst in addition to that in spite of all the hardships of contact, there has been continuity. John-Bennett-Herrington- Chickasaw Nation (Comm in addition to er,-USN)NASA Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Northern Cheyenne Winona LaDuke, Environmental activist, 2004 Green Party VP C in addition to idate, White Earth Anishinabeg (Ojibwe) US Census: Person having origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central in addition to South America in addition to who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. Includes people who self-reported ‘American Indian in addition to Alaska Native’ or wrote their principal or enrolled tribe Who gets counted as being Indian Self-Identification Card-carrying Indians in addition to tribal rolls Blood quantum DNA Race on the 2000 census is by self-identification

Courses toward urban life A very wide range of social organizations in addition to political ideologies at European Contact Social organization ranged from nomadic, patricentric, egalitarian hunters in addition to gatherers with completely kin-based systems to nearly urban, socially stratified, matricentric horticulturalists with both kin in addition to non-kin-based systems. Much of this broke down during the next 500 years. Social organization is still in flux. At Contact, there was immense diversity What do we know about Indians A lot—yes, but much of it is wrong or at least there is another view Etic vs. emic Outside vs. inside Real vs. ideal Scientific epistemologies vs. traditional epistemologies So, then, do we really know much about Indians Yes, but mostly from a scientific perspective Knowing what it means to be Indian is a very different matter! Knowing that our archaeologically derived scientific perspectives have an impact on contemporary Indians is crucial as long as us to underst in addition to !

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