Why Do People Vote, in addition to Does it Matter if They Don’t Why Don’t Americans Vote Voting in Recent American Presidential Elections Turnout in Recent CA Elections Turnout (of Registered Voters) in Two Recent Local Elections

Why Do People Vote, in addition to Does it Matter if They Don’t Why Don’t Americans Vote Voting in Recent American Presidential Elections Turnout in Recent CA Elections Turnout (of Registered Voters) in Two Recent Local Elections www.phwiki.com

Why Do People Vote, in addition to Does it Matter if They Don’t Why Don’t Americans Vote Voting in Recent American Presidential Elections Turnout in Recent CA Elections Turnout (of Registered Voters) in Two Recent Local Elections

Paglia, Camille, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Why Do People Vote, in addition to Does it Matter if They Don’t Michael Alvarez PS 120 Why Don’t Americans Vote Long in addition to complex ballots (many c in addition to idates, many seats, initiatives) Lack of campaign activity in addition to mobilization Disaffection, loss of trust in government, alienation Legal in addition to institutional barriers Voting in Recent American Presidential Elections Note: Percentage of voting age population (CPS)

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Turnout in Recent CA Elections Turnout (of Registered Voters) in Two Recent Local Elections Puzzles Why is turnout so low Why is turnout lower in local relative to national elections Why is turnout declining in recent decades Who votes in addition to who does not Does low turnout matter, empirically or normatively

A Model as long as Voter Turnout “Calculus of Voting” (Riker in addition to Ordeshook 1968) V = pB – C V = pB – C + D p = probability of vote “mattering” B = “utility” benefit of voting C = costs of voting D = citizen duty, goodwill feeling Comparative Statics Ceteris paribus: increases in p lead to increased turnout increases in B lead to increased turnout increases in C lead to decreased turnout increases in D lead to increased turnout This Model Presents the Basic Dilemma Generally speaking, p will be zero in most elections Also, benefits will be low in addition to costs high So unless “duty” is a very important factor to many people, we should expect to see low turnout

Citizenship in addition to Registration Matter Millions, 2004 U.S. Presidential Election (CPS) 216 197 142 Citizenship, Race in addition to Voting 2004 Presidential Election Who is registered in addition to voting Demographics of registration in addition to voting 2004 Presidential Election Two statistics % registered as long as each group, of CVAP % voting as long as each group, of CVAP

Who Votes: Race/Ethnicity % of CVAP Who Votes: Gender % of CVAP Who Votes: Age % of CVAP

Who Votes: Education % of CVAP Who Votes: Residential Mobility % of CVAP So who votes Citizens who are registered Whites Higher levels of educational attainment ( in addition to of course income) Older citizens Long-time residents

Reasons as long as not voting, 2004 Percentages of registered non-voters, 2004 Education in addition to Reasons as long as not voting, 2004 Percentages of registered non-voters, 2004 Education in addition to Reasons as long as not voting, 2004 Percentages of registered non-voters, 2004

So, why is turnout “so low” Costs: Initial cost of registration Continual cost of remaining registered In as long as mation in addition to access costs Fact: most REGISTERED voters participate in presidential elections And as these costs (i.e., registration) are things we can influence through policy Ef as long as ts to Lower Costs Same day registration; easing of registration regulations Expansion of ballot access — absentee or mail balloting, other mechanisms (internet) Same-day registration Something Maine, Minnesota, in addition to Wisconsin adopted in the 1970’s (North Dakota does not have voter registration) Something Idaho, New Hampshire, in addition to Wyoming adopted in the late 1990’s Used in the 1980’s in Oregon Was a ballot initiative in 2002 in Cali as long as nia in addition to Colorado

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Registration in addition to Turnout in Selected States, 2004 EDR’s Estimated Impact in Cali as long as nia Estimated Increases in CA 2000 turnout, Alvarez-Ansolabehere 2002. Does low turnout matter substantively Demographic differences between who votes in addition to who does not indicate there might be substantial impacts on representation After all, do you think that you have the same interests as people three decades or more older than you

Nonvoters, voters in addition to age (2004 presidential) Nonvoters, voters in addition to education (2004 presidential) Does low turnout matter Impacts the legitimacy of the electoral process Lessens citizen’s connection to political world One of many civic values in decline, intertwined with other declining civic values (especially participation in other public groups)

But Registration in addition to voting is so easy now If we keep making it easier we lessen the security of elections In as long as mational differences between voters in addition to non-voters One empirical puzzle Few studies have been able to show a clear bias in political representation due to turnout There are only slight policy differences found in most studies between who votes in addition to who does not Perhaps non-voter interests are articulated to some extent in the political system Does low turnout matter normatively Should we be concerned when about 50% of the eligible electorate casts votes as long as president When only a small fraction of registered citizens votes in local races Should great ef as long as t be extended to “bring back the non-voters”

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Paglia, Camille is from United States and they belong to Salon.com and they are from  San Francisco, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Paglia, Camille deal with the subjects like Culture; Federal Government and Politics; Performing Arts; Sexuality; Society

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