WIND – Global And Local Wind Air Pressure Building a Model of Global Wind Circulation (1st Order Winds)

WIND – Global And Local Wind Air Pressure Building a Model of Global Wind Circulation (1st Order Winds)

WIND – Global And Local Wind Air Pressure Building a Model of Global Wind Circulation (1st Order Winds)

Cordova, Randy, Features Reporter and Movie Critic has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal WIND – Global And Local Lesson Goals: Introduce a general model of winds in addition to atmospheric pressure Relate these winds in addition to pressure cells to climate conditions Note local exceptions in addition to problems when using the model Wind What causes wind Wind results from the horizontal motion of air from areas of high surface pressure to areas of low surface pressure. High Low Surface High Air Pressure Force exerted by air molecules per unit area (Result of compression of the air by gravity). This pressure as long as ce is omnidirectional.

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Building a Model of Global Wind Circulation (1st Order Winds) Warm surface conditions or strongly rising air often produce low surface pressure Cold surface conditions or strongly descending air often produce high surface pressure N Where should we expect high pressure Low pressure The Polar regions should consist of sinking cold air in addition to high pressure. The equatorial region should exhibit rising warm air in addition to low pressure. Low High Air masses diverge when they collide with an obstruction, including the earth’s surface in addition to high level temperature inversions. Low High

At roughly 300 north in addition to south of the equator air that was warmed at the equator sinks back towards the surface as it cools in addition to is as long as ced into the decreasing circumference of the earth. 300 N 300 S High High High Low Again, when these air masses collide with the surface, they diverge. Notice the emerging pattern of alternate b in addition to s of high in addition to low pressure. When surface air masses collide the effect is termed convergence. High High High Low Low Also notice the cyclical pattern of air motion between the equator in addition to 300 N in addition to S. These broad cells are called Hadley Cells, after the man who discovered them. These convection cells are almost always present in the tropical regions. Hadley Cell Hadley Cell

Convergence between the tropics creates a large region of generally low pressure called the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This area is often wet in addition to cloudy. T Note that we now see warm midlatitude air colliding (converging) with cold polar air at roughly 600 N in addition to S of the equator. These Polar Fronts are other areas of relatively low pressure, atmospheric instability, in addition to , as we’ll see, the source of most mid-latitude storms. 600 N 600 S Warm air, of course, rises above the colder air from the polar regions, but convection cells, like the equatorial Hadley Cells, are not as common.

Now that we have finished this profile view of earth circulation let’s transfer the surface winds onto the diagram. 600 N 600 S 300 N 300 S We have a problem. This diagram does not accurately depict Earth’s prevailing winds. Why We have neglected to consider that the earth is in constant rotation. This has a dramatic effect on wind direction. 600 N 600 S 300 N 300 S The Coriolis Force Apparent deflection of all free-moving objects from a straight path. Caused by the Earth rotation eastward, out from under the path of the object. Result Deflection to RIGHT in Northern Hemisphere Deflection to LEFT in Southern Hemisphere Zero Coriolis at Equator; max. at poles. How does this work

Thus, in actuality, the Coriolis as long as ce deflects all winds to the right of their intended direction in the northern hemisphere in addition to to the left in the southern hemisphere. 600 N 600 S 300 N 300 S Each b in addition to of resulting prevailing winds is named. Winds are labeled by their source direction (“where they came from”). 600 N 600 S 300 N 300 S Polar Easterlies Polar Easterlies Westerlies Westerlies NE Trade Winds SE Trade Winds

Equatorial Low Pressure Trough: Clouds in addition to Rain The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Doldrums ITCZ L Subtropical High-Pressure Cells: Hot Desert Air The Horse Latitudes Broad Cells of High Pressure H Subtropical High-Pressure Cells: Hot Desert Air

Subpolar Low-Pressure Cells: Cool in addition to Moist Large semi-permanent low pressure b in addition to surrounds Antarctica Aleutian Low Icel in addition to ic Low Polar High Pressure Cells: Frigid Deserts Arctic in addition to Antarctic Highs Very dry, despite general snow cover. Precipitation is rare, but rarely melts. Map View of Wind Circulation H L H L Equator

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Ocean Currents Note: Cold Cali as long as nia Current Ocean Currents Note: Dramatically Warm Gulf Stream

Summary There are seven components to the global circulation model. From Pole to Equator they are: polar highs, subpolar lows, westerlies, subtropical highs, trade winds, in addition to the intertropical convergence zone. All of these patterns are displaced seasonally by earth-sun relationships. Local in addition to regional winds are sometimes more prevalent than the broader scale global winds of the model. Exceptions to the model-Seasonal Variation in addition to Localized Winds Seasonal Latitude Shift Monsoons Mountain-Valley Winds L in addition to -Sea Breezes Santa Ana Winds Seasonal Shift of Winds in addition to Pressure Cells (January)

Compressional Heating Winds (Santa Ana Winds, Chinooks, Foehn Winds) Santa Ana Winds San Diego, October 2003

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